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The particle dualism of electromagnetic waves /电磁波的波粒二象性原理

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发表于 2021-1-2 16:10:14 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
This journal article is previously published as: Liu Huan. (2021). The particle dualism of electromagnetic waves. Journal of Environment and Health Science (ISSN 2314-1628), 2021(2)., which is converted into Journal of Quantum Physics and Materials Chemistry (ISSN2958-4027) . Both Journals belong to the same publisher, Liu Huan. The previous journal article is closed to the public, but the previous reference is still valid.

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Cited as: DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.7246697

Article 2: The particle dualism of electromagnetic waves /电磁波的波粒二象性原理
Author: Liu Huan (1983- ), Master of Science (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland.
1.The wave-particle duality of electromagnetic waves
Magnetic mass lines in micro-particle structure: the concept of magnetic mass line is proposed in this paper. The magnetic mass line in three-dimensional space of micro particles is a function of the spatial distribution of both mass and magnetic field (magnetic fields can be measured by electric charges). Therefore, the geometric center of the spatial distribution of the magnetic mass line within the micro particle (such as a molecule) is not only different from the geometric center point of mass spatial distribution, but also different from the geometric center point of the spatial distribution of electric charges; it is the interaction point of the doubles. The geometric center point of the magnetic mass line is exactly the center point of the rotation motion of the materials aggregated as a whole (such as the rotation motion of electrons in atom, molecule revolution motion discussed above, or celestial rotation motion). It can be inferred that the geometric center of the magnetic mass line in a atom is not the center of the nucleus, which can only be interpreted to be closer to the nuclear center point, because the electron mass is much smaller than the nuclear mass, and the nuclear center point is closer to the geometric center point of the whole atomic mass. Therefore, it is too simple to simplify that the internal motion of the electron in an atom is defined as the rotation of the electrons around the nucleus. In fact, both the nucleus and the electron rotate around the geometric center of its magnetic mass line of an atom. This provides a basis for the theoretical calculation of rotational motion in astrophysics and the optimization of synthetic structure of polymers by 3D simulation of molecule movement.In addition, since the nucleus of positive charge and the electron of negative charge rotate around the geometric center of the magnetic mass field line in atom respectively, the characteristics of electromagnetic waves generated by each rotation should be significant different in the element properties of electromagnetic waves from each other, which needs to be further discussed. This is of great significance to the application on the electromagnetic spectrum analysis in the next.
For example, the characteristics of the γ rays should be revealed as the electromagnetic waves generated by the positively charged protons rotating around the spin center inside the atomic nucleus, which is different from the rotation center of the whole atom. The rotation center of an whole atom is the common rotation center of both the nucleus and the electron, whereas the inner spin center of the nucleus is the spin center of the elementary particles in the nucleus. Compared to the electromagnetic spectrum produced by electrons, the electromagnetic waves produced by γ ray does not only have shorter wavelengths and higher frequencies because of their smaller rotation radius, but also leads to higher penetration capacity due to its energy of higher intensity in nucleus, and the energy of electromagnetic waves produced by nucleus is much higher than the electron consequently. In this paper, it is to further present that the electromagnetic wave produced by the rotation of positively charged protons around the spin center inside nucleus transmits at faster speed than the electromagnetic wave produced by an electron rotating around the spin center of an whole atom. Further because of the electric charge difference between the positively charged protons and the electrons, the wave crest peak and the wave trough bottom point have opposite polarity between these two electromagnetic waves respectively. This is the main reason why the γ ray penetration capacity is high. For example, if the wave peaks of the electromagnetic waves produced by the nucleus are defined as the anode and the bottom points of waves are defined as the cathode respectively, then the peaks of the electromagnetic waves produced by the electrons are defined as the cathode and the trough bottoms are the anode correspondingly. Γ Radiation of high energy flow density can easily neutralize and penetrate the electromagnetic waves generated by electrons when they transmit to meet each other in the opposite direction. Therefore, for the wave-particle duality analysis of electromagnetic waves, the polarity of the peaks and bottoms of waves should be analyzed as a basic element in this paper, which is different from that of mechanical waves.
For example, according to the experimental data, the electron resonance frequency is measured to be 8.41GHz under the main magnetic field environment of 0.3T, while the proton resonance frequency measured by common nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is only 12.77MHz [1]. In further comparison, the frequency of the γ ray is above 1020Hz [2]. γ rays is the electromagnetic waves generated by the proton rotating around the spin center inside the atomic nucleus, while the NMR frequency of proton  reflects the electromagnetic wave generated by the protons rotating around the whole atomic spin center, and electron resonance frequency represents the electrons rotating around the whole atomic spin center. Therefore, it is easy to deduce that the angular frequency of proton rotation around the spin center inside the atomic nucleus is much greater than the angular frequency of proton rotation around the whole atomic spin center, and is also much greater than the angular frequency of electrons rotation around the whole atomic spin center. The angular frequency of electrons rotation around the whole atomic spin center is significantly higher than the angular frequency of protons rotation around the whole atomic spin center.
Comparing and contrasting between light wave and α Ray, β Ray, γ ray: light wave is a kind of electromagnetic wave with shearing and transverse wave nature, and itself does not produce electric current effect, but it is capable of producing photoelectric effect through propagation medium such as specific electrical conductors; Ray is a type of electromagnetic wave with longitudinal wave nature. When the emission frequency of ray changes (not constant), it is to generate the pulse electromagnetic wave, which further results in current effect. Therefore, the electric current can be detected without medium in the propagation direction of electromagnetic wave as rays. Rays travel faster than light waves with stronger penetration.
Further discussion: compared with the electron, the radius between the proton and the rotation center in the nucleus is shorter, and the rotation speed is higher, so the energy flow intensity of electromagnetic wave is higher, and the transmission speed of electromagnetic wave is faster. It has been discussed in my previous paper that the refraction or diffraction of light is caused by the interference influences between the magnetic field on the obstacle surface and the polarity of light wave, which is different from mechanical wave. Therefore, different characteristics of materials generates different light refraction or diffraction angles. This is also applicable on the other frequencies of electromagnetic wave.
More over, because our three-dimension space is curved sphere, all the remote objects observed by us are the enlarged images due to the magnifier effects, so the astro-observation data have to be corrected. The electromagnetic wave transmission speed (such as light speed) varies between different magnetism fields (NOT constant), which leads to significant effects on the astro-observation data. These two effects require corrections of data received by astronomy observations.Otherwise it is too different significantly from the real data.
微观粒子结构中的质量磁力线:本文提出质量磁力线概念,微观粒子三维空间中的质量磁力线为质量空间分布和磁场量(可以电荷量衡量)空间分布的函数。因此微观粒子(比如一个分子)的质量磁力线的空间分布几何中心既有异于质量空间分布的几何中心点,也不同于电荷量空间分布的几何中心点;而是二者的相互作用点。而这个质量磁力线的空间几何中心点正好是物质集合体自转运动的中心点(不管是微观原子、分子自旋运动,还是天体旋转运动)。可以推测出,简单原子中的质量磁力线几何中心不是原子核的中心,仅仅可以定义为更加接近于原子核中心点,因为电子质量相对于原子核的质量小很多,原子核中心点近似于整个原子质量几何中心点。所以电子内部运动简化为电子围绕原子核做自转运动也是过于简单的理解。其实是原子核与电子围绕其质量磁力线几何中心做自旋运动。这对于天体物理学中旋转运动理论计算和高分子合成结构的优化提供了理论依据进行3D分子运动模拟。另外,由于正电荷的原子核与负电荷的电子共同围绕原子的质量磁力线几何中心做自转运动,因此两者各自由于自转产生的电磁波的基本要素特性有显著不同,有待进一步论述。这对下一步物质的电磁波谱分析的应用有重要意义。
比如,γ射线的特性应当揭示为正电荷质子围绕原子核内自转中心做自转运动产生的电磁波,原子核内自转中心不同于整个原子的自转中心。原子的自转中心是原子核与电子共同的自转中心;原子核内自转中心是原子核内基本粒子围绕自旋的中心。与电子产生的电磁波谱相比,γ射线产生的电磁波不仅由于自转半径更小导致波长更短,频率更高,而且由于其能量集中导致其穿透性、与能量远远高于电子产生电磁波。本文进一步认为正电荷质子围绕原子核内自转中心做自转运动产生的电磁波与电子围绕整个原子的自转中心旋转产生电磁波相比,传播速度更快(两者电磁波传播速度不会相同),而且由于两者之间的电荷相异,电磁波的波峰点和波谷点所带极性在两种电磁波之间也相反。这就是为什么γ射线穿透力很高的主要原因。比如,如果原子核产生的电磁波波峰定义为阳极,波谷定义为阴极;则电子产生的电磁波波峰定义为阴极,波谷定义为阳极。能量流密度很高的γ射线从逆向传播方向与电子产生的电磁波相接触,则可以容易中和并且穿透。因此对于电磁波的波粒二象性定理,本文应当把波峰与波谷的极性作为基本要素进行分析,这与机械波有所不同。
比如根据实验数据,在0.3T的主磁场环境背景下,电子共振频率测定为8.41GHz,而对于常用的核磁共振的质子共振频率仅为12.77MHz[1]。相对比而言,γ射线的频率则为高于1020Hz[2]。其中γ射线是质子围绕原子核内自旋中心旋转产生的电磁波,而质子核磁共振的共振频率则反映质子围绕整个原子自旋中心旋转产生的电磁波,电子共振频率则反映电子围绕整个原子自旋中心旋转产生的电磁波。因此很容易推测出,质子围绕原子核内自转中心旋转角频率远远大于质子围绕整个原子自旋中心旋转的角频率,并且也远远大于电子围绕整个原子自旋中心旋转的角频率。电子围绕整个原子自旋中心旋转的角频率则显著大于质子围绕整个原子自旋中心旋转的角频率。
对比光波与α射线β射线γ射线的区别:光波是一种横波性质的电磁波,本身不产生电流效应,但是经过特定电导体等传播介质可以产生光电效应;射线是一种纵波性质的电磁波,当射线的发射频率变动时(非恒定),可以产生脉冲电磁波,并且进一步产生电流效应,因此射线在电磁波传播方向上不需要介质,即可以探测到电流。射线传播速度高于光波,并且穿透力更强。
进一步论述:与电子相比,原子核中质子与自转中心之间的半径更小,自转角速度更高,因此产生的电磁波能量流密度更大,电磁波传播速率更快。之前文章已经论述,光的折射或是衍射现象是由于障碍物表面磁场与光波极性的干涉作用产生的,这与机械波不同。因此不同特性的材料都会产生不同的光的折射或是衍射角度。
再一步延伸,因为我们所在的三维空间是曲型球体,因此产生了放大效应;并且由于电磁波传播在不同星系中由于磁场相异,传播速度是非恒定的。这对于天文观察数据而言,需要进一步进行数据修正,否则相差甚大。
Pleased note: This is the revised materials in book “Proceedings for Degree of Postgraduate Diploma in Environmental Science (3rd Edition).” published in 2016. Secondly Revised on 31/12/2020;Thirdly Revised on 06/10/2021; Fourthly Revised on 24/10/2022; Fifthly Revised on 25/10/2022; Seventh Revised on 26/10/2022; Eighth Revised on 31/10/2022. This journal article is previously published as: Liu Huan. (2021). The particle dualism of electromagnetic waves. Journal of Environment and Health Science (ISSN 2314-1628), 2021(2)., which is converted into Journal of Quantum Physics and Materials Chemistry (ISSN2958-4027) . Both Journals belong to the same publisher, Liu Huan. The previous journal article is closed to the public, but the previous reference is still valid.
  
References:
[1]. 电子自旋共振。搜狗百科。
[2]. 电磁波。搜狗百科。


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