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发表于 2021-1-2 16:07:53 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
This journal article is previously published as: Liu Huan. (2021). Quantum Mechanics. Journal of Environment and Health Science (ISSN 2314-1628), 2021(02). https://doi.org/10.58473/JQPMC0001, which is converted into Journal of Quantum Physics and Materials Chemistry (ISSN 2958-4027). Both journals belong to the same publisher, Liu Huan. The previous journal article is closed to the public, but the previous reference is still valid.

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Article 1. Quantum Mechanics/量子力学

Author: Liu Huan (1983- ), Master of Science (First Class Honours,2009), The University of Auckland.

1. After the atomic half-life, both the electrons moving in the unstable layer and the paired protons are separated from the internal spin trajectory of the atom and emitted to the outside of the atom due to the reduction of momentum in three-dimensional space, showing radioactivity. However, the positively charged protons emitted at this time are not separated from their paired electrons, but still paired due to the adhesion of dark matter in the fourth dimension. The specific motion characteristics in this scenario are below: the positively charged proton and its paired electron move like a spring as longitudinal wave motion along the fourth dimension axis; Due to the high-speed motion of protons in three-dimensional space, forming the cutting motion against the magnetic line on the fourth dimensional axis, protons continue to carry positive charges; However, in this pairing scenario, the polarity of the electrons points to the fourth dimensional axis, so the negative charge characteristics of the electrons appear in its fourth dimensional space and pair with the positively charged protons in three-dimensional space; The positively charged protons and its paired electrons moves like a spring as longitudinal wave motion on the fourth dimension axis, consequently producing a pulse wave. This pulse wave is the origin of α rays, β rays and γ rays in radioactive elements. Correspondingly, these rays has also become the strong evidence to prove the motion of paired charge particles, which can be simulated in the laboratory.

2. The design of the particle collider, in fact, the charged particle beams formed in the accelerator are similar to the positively charged particles emitted after the half-life of the atom. It is not the really atomic splitting in this scenario, but two paired positively and negatively charged particles on the fourth dimension axis move like spring as the longitudinal wave motion, in which one charged particle displays the amount of electric charges in three-dimensional space, and the other paired particle shows opposite charges in the fourth dimensional space. The pairs of positively and negatively charged particles make a spring longitudinal wave motion on the fourth dimension axis, resulting in pulsed electromagnetic waves. During the process of accelerating charged particle beam by accelerator in particle collider, the pulse electromagnetic wave detected is due to this reason. However, in this case, the paired particles of positive and negative charges as a whole still display the characteristics of neutral atoms, but the symmetry center of the spatial distribution of electric charges switches from three dimension spaces to the fourth dimension axis in this scenario.

3. Consequently, when two beams of charged particle collide in the particle collider, under the condition that the law of electromagnetic induction can be ignored, the kinetic mechanics of a beam of charged micro-particles only conforms to the principle of fluid mechanics (such as pressure calculations), and is not applicable on the mechanical energy law of solid collision (such as conservation of momentum).When the pressures produced by the beams of charged particles is enough, it is able to collide the nucleus of atoms, achieving the karyorrhexis of nucleus atoms. There are two reasons: the neutral magnetic field in atoms shields the approaching charged micro-particles; the dark matter underlay in the fourth dimension space of the atoms materials being collided also affects the motion of a beam of charged micro-particles. Once a charged micro-particles stream approaches the aggregation of dark matter, dark matter produces a non-linear resistance buffer force. These two forces lead the charged micro-particles pass along the sides of atoms materials, so that only the principle of fluid mechanics is applicable. Both dark matter and anti-matter have been further discussed in other themes of this journal[3][4].

4. From the viewpoint of force analysis on micro-particles, the momentum theorem  is applicable between two objects’ collision only if the two objects are endowed with the forces of the same nature. In this physical case, the charged micro-particles beams are derived by Coulomb force, whereas the atoms substances is given the mechanical force (it is unreasonable to conduct force analysis separately on the nucleus or electron within the neutral atom in this physical simulation case). Additionally, the dark matter produces non-linear buffer mutual forces among micro-objects including atoms or molecules, which leads the physical simulation of momentum theorem and conservation theorem of mechanical energy to be not applicable again. Consequently, the momentum theorem and conservation theorem of mechanical energy is applicable on the macro-physical solid objects only as approximate calculations, but is not applicable on the micro-physical simulations of particles motion.

5. The basic unit of elementary micro-particle partition and classification should be based on the basic unit of Coulomb force, which can be divided into three categories only: proton, electron and neutron. These elementary micro-particles randomly fluctuate along the fourth dimension axis, so the mass of micro-particles in the three dimensions space isn't constant. The mass M of elementary particles in three-dimensional space is a compound trigonometric function of time variable T and natural constant e (≈ 2.718281828459045). The smaller micro-particles (such as Quark) partitioned by the large particle collider technology are the proportional/partial mass of the elementary micro-particles occurring in the three-dimensional space at a certain time. Therefore, the physical parameters such as mass and charge in the experimental results should be defined as a variable that comforts to the probability distribution law in Statistics (different from the constant or irregular variables). Consequently, this kind of research method and technology should focus on the exploration of the movement law of elementary micro-particles on the four-dimensional axis, which is given more application significance, such as the foundation research of new materials synthesis. After the synchrotron phase, the charged particles collide in a vacuum ring tube under constant magnetic field intensity, so the tangent velocity of the charged particles that collide is relatively uniform velocity. Because charged particles in the particle collider experiment collide with each other in a relatively uniform velocity motion mode, if the particle mass is fixed, the particle mass and energy after collision segmentation should be relatively fixed, and should not be subdivided into such a large number of particles with different masses, especially when the collision experiment is applied to non radioactive elements.

6. Anti-particles: with regards to the reasons why there are both positive and negative types of β Decay: this article proposes that the type of β Decay process is mainly determined by the rotation orientations of free electrons around the rotation center point of an atom in the three dimensional spaces. In the electron clouds, if the free electron with rotation motion of clockwise orientation is emitted from the unstable atom, which is defined as the negative pole relatively to the nuclear of an atom, the nucleus would tend to be positive β decay process; if the free electron with rotation motion of anticlockwise orientation is emitted from the unstable atom, which is defined the positive pole relatively to the nuclear of an atom, the nucleus would tend to be negative β decay process. Consequently, the electrons can be both positive and negative poles relatively to the nucleus of an atom, rather than single pole to the nucleus [2].

7. With regards to gravitational wave generating mechanism:the generation of gravitational waves is the space-time bending phenomenon detected under the condition that the mass density and weight of celestial bodies increases significantly. This paper further proposes that the elementary particle motion model in the celestial body of this scenario is similar to that of the ray: the spring-type longitudinal wave motion is performed on the fourth dimension axis, and the pulse wave is generated. However, due to the high mass density of the celestial body that generates the gravitational wave and the aging effect of dark matter, the gravitational wave is low-frequency and long wave length, compared with the ray. It is deduced that in most cases, the higher the frequencies of gravitational wave, the younger the star form; the stronger intensity of gravitational wave, the heavier mass of the star system (or the stronger gravity per unit mass) to compress the charged elementary particles. When binary star merger happens, the elementary particles between binary stars absorb radiation energy firstly, turning into excited state with higher energy level and more free form (although this excited free form has not reached the ionization state). Then the elementary particles of excited state with more free form are further synthesized into degenerate matter by the gravity contraction. In this degenerate matter synthesis process, the incident particles and atomic nuclei combine to form into metastable composite nucleus, which subsequently decays into the final stable particles in a period, further releasing radiation energy. This metastable composite nucleus as the combination of incident particles and nuclei is called the resonant state, and the final stable particles would be the final state of degenerate matter compressed by gravity [2].

1. 原子半衰期之后,在不稳定层运动的电子和与之配对的质子由于在三维空间中的动量减少,脱离了原子内部自旋运动的轨迹,向原子外部射出,展现出了放射性。但是此时射出的带正电荷质子与其配对的电子并非相分离,而是由于第四维度轴上的暗物质的粘合力作用依然配对。此情景下的具体运动特性为:带正电荷质子与其配对的电子在第四维度轴上做弹簧式的纵波型运动;质子由于在三维空间中的高速运动与第四维度轴上的磁力线形成了切割运动,因此继续带正电荷;但是电子的极性在此配对情景下则指向着第四维度轴,因此此时电子的负电荷特性在其第四维度空间呈现,与三维空间中的正电荷质子配对;带正电荷质子与其配对的电子在第四维度轴上做弹簧式的纵波型运动,产生脉冲波。这种脉冲波就是放射性元素中α射线β射线γ射线的起源。与此同时,这些射线也成为了有力的证据佐证这个微观粒子的运动过程,并且可以在实验室模拟。

2. 粒子对撞机的产生,实际上在加速器中形成的带电粒子束,与原子半衰期之后放射出的正电荷粒子类似,并非真正意义上的原子裂解,而是两个配对的正负电荷粒子在第四维度轴上做弹簧式的纵波型运动,其中一个带电粒子在三维空间显示电荷量,而另一个配对粒子则在第四维度空间上显示相异电荷。两个配对的正负电荷粒子在第四维度轴上做弹簧式的纵波型运动,从而产生脉冲电磁波。在粒子对撞机中加速器加速带电粒子束的过程中,探测到的脉冲电磁波就是这个成因。但是此情景下配对的正负电荷粒子作为一个整体仍然是中性原子的特性,仅仅不过是电荷的空间分布对称中心从三维空间转移到了第四维度轴上。

3. 因此粒子对撞机中两束带电粒子束对撞,在电磁感应定律可以忽略不计的条件下, 一束带电微观粒子流的运动力学从概率统计上的规律是只符合流体力学原理(比如压强),不符合固体碰撞机械能规律(比如没有动量守恒定理之类)。从一束带电微观粒子流来分析,当其产生的压强足够大,可以使得被碰撞的中性原子破裂,撞击原子内部的质子或中子,从而产生核裂解。其中的原因是中性的原子内部能量场不仅对前来撞击的带电粒子形成屏蔽作用,而且被碰撞的原子物质集合体还受到第四维度空间的暗物质的作用,当一束带电微观粒子流一旦接近暗物质的集合体,暗物质则产生一种非直线型抵抗缓冲力。以上两种作用使带电粒子从原子物质的侧边擦过,从而只有流体力学的原理。本杂志在其它主题进一步论述了暗物质和反物质[3][4];

4. 从力学角度分析,两个物体之间碰撞,只有在两个物体都赋予同性质力的条件下,才能适用于动量定理。 带电质子(或电子)束碰撞中性的原子,前者为库仑力,后者为机械力(不应分割中性原子中的原子核与电子做受力分析,这不科学),两者力的性质不同,不适用于动量定理计算式。此外,微观原子或是分子之间由于暗物质作用而产生的一种非直线性缓冲相互作用力,使得动量定理和机械能守恒定理模拟所要求的物理条件变得不再适用。因此动量定理和机械能守恒定理仅仅适用于宏观物理固体物体,并且是一种近似计算,并不适用于微观物理粒子运动模拟条件。

5.微观粒子的最基本分割单位应以库仑力的基本单位作为基准而划分,仅为质子、电子、中子三类。基本微观粒子在第四维度轴上做随机型几何波动,因此其质量在三维空间不是恒定的,即基本粒子在三维空间的质量M为时间变量T与自然常数e(≈ 2.718281828459045)的复合三角函数。使用大型粒子对撞机技术对基本粒子进行分割之后的更为细小的微观粒子(比如夸克)为基本微观粒子在某一特定时间点出现在三维空间的质量,因此其实验结果中的质量与电荷量等物理参数应当定义为在统计学上服从概率分布的一种变量(与恒定的常量或是无规律的变量相区别),从而反映出了基本微观粒子在第四维度轴的运动规律,所以该类研究方法与技术应侧重于基本微观粒子在四维度轴上运动规律的探究更为具备现实的意义,比如新材料的基础型研究。带电粒子经过同步加速器阶段之后,在磁场强度恒定的环形真空管中对撞,此时对撞的带电粒子在切线上的速度相对匀速。因为粒子对撞机实验中的带电粒子是以相对匀速的运动模式相对撞,如果是粒子质量固定不变,则对撞分割之后的粒子质量与能量应当为相对固定不变,不应当细分为如此大量的不同质量的粒子,特别是当对撞实验应用于非放射性元素的时候。

6. 反粒子:关于为什么β衰变同时存在正衰变和负衰变类型的原因?本文认为原子核β衰变过程的类型主要是由三维空间中自由电子围绕原子旋转中心点的自旋方向决定的。在电子云中,如果不稳定状态下逃逸的自由电子进行顺时针自旋运动,相对于原子核定义为负极,则原子核趋于正β衰变过程;如果不稳定状态下逃逸的自由电子进行逆时针自旋运动,即相对于原子核定义为正极,则原子核趋向于负β衰变过程。因此,电子相对于原子的原子核既可以是正极,亦可以是负极,而并非单极[2]。

7. 引力波的产生则是在天体的质量密度和重量呈现显著增加的条件下探测的时空弯曲现象。本文认为此情景下天体的基本粒子运动模型与射线相类似,在第四维度轴上做弹簧式的纵波型运动,产生脉冲波,但是由于产生引力波的天体质量密度高,以及暗物质的衰老作用,此时引力波相对射线而言是一种低频率的长波。由此推断,在大多数情况下,引力波的频率越高,恒星形态的年龄就越年轻;引力波的强度越强,恒星系统质量的重力越重(或单位质量的引力越强),用于压缩带电的基本粒子。当双星合并时,双星之间的基本粒子首先吸收辐射能量,转变为能级更高、更自由形式的激发态(尽管这种激发态的自由形式尚未达到电离态)。然后通过重力压缩将更具有自由形式的激发态基本粒子进一步合成为简并物质。在这个简并物质合成过程中,入射粒子和原子核结合形成亚稳态复合核,然后在一段时间内衰变为最终形态的稳定粒子,进一步释放辐射能量。这种亚稳态复合核作为入射粒子和原子核的组合,称为粒子共振状态,而且最终形态的稳定粒子则是被重力压缩的简并物质最终状态[2]。

Please note: This is the revised materials in book “Proceedings for Degree of Postgraduate Diploma in Environmental Science (3rd Edition).” published in 2016. Secondly Revised on 31/12/2020; Thirdly revised on 19/09/2021. This journal article is previously published as: Liu Huan. (2021). Quantum Mechanics. Journal of Environment and Health Science (ISSN 2314-1628), 2021(02), which is converted into Journal of Quantum Physics and Materials Chemistry (ISSN 2958-4027). Both journals belong to the same publisher, Liu Huan. The previous journal article is closed to the public, but the previous reference is still valid. Latest Revised on 2023/1/1; 2023/1/21; 2023/01/27;2023/05/24;2023/07/31; 2023/08/15;2024/03/14
  
References:
[1] 搜狗百科,共享百科全书/Sogou Baike, Creative Commons.
[2] Liu Huan (2023). Essay: original review of high-dimensional spaces and astronomy theories in modern physics. Journal of Astronomy and Earth Sciences (ISSN2958-4043). 2023 (07). https://doi.org/10.58473/JAES0010
[3] Liu Huan. (2021). Van der Waals force and Dark Matter. Journal of Environment and Health Science (ISSN 2314-1628), 2021(02). https://doi.org/10.58473/JQPMC0006
[4] Liu Huan. (2021). The anti-matter of symmetric three-dimensional spaces along the fourth dimension axis. Journal of Environment and Health Science (ISSN2314-1628), 2021(2). https://doi.org/10.58473/JAES0002

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