Liu Huan (1983-), Master of Science (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland.

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Discussion on Gene Sequencing and Classification of DNA Genetic Markers

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发表于 2021-5-16 15:04:25 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
This is the article 15 in the theme 'Environmental Physiology/环境生理学' of Journal of Environment and Health Science.

2021. Copyrights Certificate Registered by Brock Chain Technology: Certificate NO. (TTAS_S.0.2_92233142793775259292611489813610280905565070) ; Certificate Verification Web: https://ttas.ntsc.ac.cn

The formally published serials is the printing <Journal of Environment and Health Science (ISSN 2314-1628)>, and the serials NO. is the month/year when the materials accessible on this website, authorized by publisher;
正式发表的期刊是印刷版《环境与卫生科学杂志(ISSN 2314-1628)》,期刊期号为文章内容在本网站上网年/月,出版人许可自行正式发表。

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 楼主| 发表于 2021-5-17 08:17:50 | 显示全部楼层
Discussion on Gene Sequencing and Classification of DNA Genetic Markers

Author: Liu Huan (1983- ), Master of Science, The University of Auckland

Nowadays, for the analysis of genetic similarity in species or subspecies by DNA sequencing technology, the selected DNA sequence fragments from gene bank only reveals a small part of the genetic information compared with the total genetic information contained by the whole genomes. Therefore, the significant difference derived from very limited/bias genetic information is likely to be a misleading conclusion. There are several reasons:

First, using DNA sequence fragment primers to amplify the chemical reaction, the information obtained is only the repetitive primer sequences of gene fragments and its relative molecular weighted among the total tested gene sequences in a experiment, but it does not reflect the spatial arrangement and combination information of various sequences on the genome. However, the arrangement and combination information of different gene sequences in the genomes is the main contribution factor of genetic variation, because most of the gene sequences revealed by DNA primers are highly conserved sequence fragments in the evolutionary process. Its own changes of DNA sequences are rare, which mainly depends on the change of arrangement and combination of various conserved sequences to achieve genetic variation in reproduction process for a population.

Secondly, in the past research, ovum cell and sperm cell are seldom separately distinguished to analyze each genetic contribution rate to their offspring. The mass/weight of DNA molecules in egg cells is much larger than DNA in sperm cells, so the genetic contribution rate of maternal DNA to offspring DNA is significantly higher than that of sperm suppliers. Consequently, statistic classification of genetic variation must input this statistic factor to distinguish. In comparison, the genetic contribution rate of bio electromagnetic waves (life signal waves) by sperm supplier to offspring is much higher than maternal parents (I have discussed this in biophysics articles).

Consequently, because the amount of genetic information tested by gene sequencing technology accounts for limited/bias proportion of the total genetic information of the genome, the significant difference in results reflected by multivariate statistics is likely to be a misleading conclusion.

For simple organisms such as viruses, because their reproduction process is only simple self-replication, and there is no complex arrangement and combination of gene recombination to achieve the genetic diversity for their offspring, such simple organisms can only rely on gene mutation to achieve the genetic variation for offspring. Therefore, the gene mutation rate of simple organisms such as viruses should be significantly higher than that of more advanced organisms. This is a common method for viruses to adapt to various environmental changes in population reproduction. This change includes both biotic and abiotic environmental conditions. However, it is expected that only a small proportion of occurrences in gene mutation may be directly related to the characteristics of virus invasive biology against host cells. Therefore, we should not overstate Big.




































关于基因测序与DNA遗传标记分类方法的论述

如今应用DNA序列片段对各物种或是亚种进行遗传相似性的分析技术中,其中所选用的DNA序列片段与整个基因组遗传信息总量相比,仅仅为其中的非常有限或是偏差性的遗传信息,因此所得出的显著性区别很可能是一种误导性结论。有以下三点理由:
一、应用DNA序列片段引物进行扩增化学反应,所得到的信息仅仅是引物重复序列的片段,但是没有反映出各种不同序列在基因组上的空间排列组合信息。而基因组上不同基因序列的排列组合信息为遗传变异特性的主要贡献因子,因为DNA引物所揭示的基因序列中绝大部分序列为进化历程中高度保守的序列片段,极少发生DNA自身序列更改,主要依靠各种保守型的序列之间进行排列组合的变化产生遗传变异特性。
二、很少区别卵细胞与精子细胞分别对子代DNA遗传贡献率的区别。对于有性生殖的高等多细胞生物,卵细胞DNA质量远远大于精子细胞DNA质量,因此母系DNA对子代DNA的遗传贡献率要显著高于精子供应者。从而遗传变异特征的分类统计必须输入这个统计因子进行区分。相比而言,精子供应者对子代生命信号波(生物电磁波)的遗传相似性的贡献率会显著高于母系亲本代(本人在生物物理学论文中已经阐明)。
三、由于所测试的遗传信息量占基因组遗传信息总量的比例很小或是偏差性的样本信息,以至于测试结果所反映出的显著性区别很可能是一种误导性结论。
四、对于病毒等简单生物而言,由于其繁殖过程仅仅为简单的自我复制,没有基因重组等复杂排列组合实现子代的遗传多样性,这类简单生物仅仅能依靠基因突变实现子代的遗传变异,因此病毒等简单生物的基因突变率应当显著高于高等生物,而这也是病毒在种群繁殖过程中为了适应多种环境变化的一种常用方法,这种环境条件变化既包括有生命的环境条件、也包括无生命环境条件。病毒基因突变发生量中仅仅有一小部分的概率会与与病毒入侵生理直接相关联。因此不应过分夸大。















References:

All the science terms in English of this journal source from Wikipedia:
https://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/;
本文所有中文科学专业术语引用自百度百科 https://baike.baidu.com/
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 楼主| 发表于 2021-5-16 15:05:15 | 显示全部楼层
Discussion on Gene Sequencing and Classification of DNA Genetic Markers

Author: Liu Huan (1983- ), Master of Science, The University of Auckland

Nowadays, for the analysis of genetic similarity in species or subspecies by DNA sequencing technology, the selected DNA sequence fragments from gene bank only reveals a small part of the genetic information compared with the total genetic information contained by the whole genomes. Therefore, the significant difference derived from a small proportion of genetic information is likely to be a misleading conclusion. There are several reasons:

First, using DNA sequence fragment primers to amplify the chemical reaction, the information obtained is only the repetitive primer sequences of gene fragments and its relative molecular weighted among the total tested gene sequences in a experiment, but it does not reflect the spatial arrangement and combination information of various sequences on the genome. However, the arrangement and combination information of different gene sequences in the genomes is the main contribution factor of genetic variation, because most of the gene sequences revealed by DNA primers are highly conserved sequence fragments in the evolutionary process. Its own changes of DNA sequences are rare, which mainly depends on the change of arrangement and combination of various conserved sequences to achieve genetic variation in reproduction process for a population.

Secondly, in the past research, ovum cell and sperm cell are seldom separately distinguished to analyze each genetic contribution rate to their offspring. The quality of DNA molecules in egg cells is much larger than DNA in sperm cells, so the genetic contribution rate of maternal DNA to offspring DNA is significantly higher than that of sperm suppliers. In comparison, the genetic contribution rate of bio electromagnetic waves (life signals) by sperm supplier to offspring is much higher than maternal parents (I have discussed this in biophysics articles).

Consequently, because the amount of genetic information tested by gene sequencing technology accounts for a small proportion of the total genetic information of the genome, the significant difference in results reflected by multivariate statistics is likely to be a misleading conclusion.

For simple organisms such as viruses, because their reproduction process is only simple self-replication, and there is no complex arrangement and combination of gene recombination to achieve the genetic diversity for their offspring, such simple organisms can only rely on gene mutation to achieve the genetic variation for offspring. Therefore, the gene mutation rate of simple organisms such as viruses should be significantly higher than that of more advanced organisms. This is a common method for viruses to adapt to various environmental changes in population reproduction. This change includes both biotic and abiotic environmental conditions. However, it is expected that only a small proportion of occurrences in gene mutation may be directly related to the characteristics of virus invasive biology against host cells. Therefore, we should not overstate Big.






关于基因测序与DNA遗传标记分类方法的论述

如今应用DNA序列片段对各物种或是亚种进行遗传相似性的分析技术中,其中所选用的DNA序列片段与整个基因组遗传信息总量相比,仅仅为其中的一小部分遗传信息,因此所得出的显著性区别很可能是一种误导性结论。有以下三点理由:
一、应用DNA序列片段引物进行扩增化学反应,所得到的信息仅仅是引物重复序列的片段,但是没有反映出各种不同序列在基因组上的空间排列组合信息。而基因组上不同基因序列的排列组合信息为遗传变异特性的主要贡献因子,因为DNA引物所揭示的基因序列中绝大部分序列为进化历程中高度保守的序列片段,极少发生DNA自身序列更改,主要依靠各种保守型的序列之间进行排列组合的变化产生遗传变异特性。
二、很少区别卵细胞与精子细胞分别对子代DNA遗传贡献率的区别。对于有性生殖的高等多细胞生物,卵细胞DNA质量远远大于精子细胞DNA质量,因此母系DNA对子代DNA的遗传贡献率要显著高于精子供应者。精子供应者对子代生命信号波(生物电磁波)的遗传相似性的贡献率会显著高于母系亲本代(本人在生物物理学论文中已经阐明)。
三、由于所测试的遗传信息量占基因组遗传信息总量的比例很小,以至于测试结果所反映出的显著性区别很可能是一种误导性结论。
四、对于病毒等简单生物而言,由于其繁殖过程仅仅为简单的自我复制,没有基因重组等复杂排列组合实现子代的遗传多样性,这类简单生物仅仅能依靠基因突变实现子代的遗传变异,因此病毒等简单生物的基因突变率应当显著高于高等生物,而这也是病毒在种群繁殖过程中为了适应多种环境变化的一种常用方法,这种环境条件变化既包括有生命的环境条件、也包括无生命环境条件。病毒基因突变发生量中仅仅有一小部分的概率会与与病毒入侵生理直接相关联。因此不应过分夸大。















References:

All the science terms in English of this journal source from Wikipedia:
https://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/;
本文所有中文科学专业术语引用自百度百科 https://baike.baidu.com/

回复 支持 反对

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1578

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 楼主| 发表于 2021-5-16 15:24:20 | 显示全部楼层
Discussion on Gene Sequencing and Classification of DNA Genetic Markers

Author: Liu Huan (1983- ), Master of Science (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland

Nowadays, for the analysis of genetic similarity in species or subspecies by DNA sequencing technology, the selected DNA sequence fragments from gene bank only reveals a small part of the genetic information compared with the total genetic information contained by the whole genomes. Therefore, the significant difference derived from a small proportion of genetic information is likely to be a misleading conclusion. There are several reasons:

First, using DNA sequence fragment primers to amplify the chemical reaction, the information obtained is only the repetitive primer sequences of gene fragments and its relative molecular weighted among the total tested gene sequences in a experiment, but it does not reflect the spatial arrangement and combination information of various sequences on the genome. However, the arrangement and combination information of different gene sequences in the genomes is the main contribution factor of genetic variation, because most of the gene sequences revealed by DNA primers are highly conserved sequence fragments in the evolutionary process. Its own changes of DNA sequences are rare, which mainly depends on the change of arrangement and combination of various conserved sequences to achieve genetic variation in reproduction process for a population.

Secondly, in the past research, ovum cell and sperm cell are seldom separately distinguished to analyze each genetic contribution rate to their offspring. The quality of DNA molecules in egg cells is much larger than DNA in sperm cells, so the genetic contribution rate of maternal DNA to offspring DNA is significantly higher than that of sperm suppliers. In comparison, the genetic contribution rate of bio electromagnetic waves (life signals) by sperm supplier to offspring is much higher than maternal parents (I have discussed this in biophysics articles).

Consequently, because the amount of genetic information tested by gene sequencing technology accounts for a small proportion of the total genetic information of the genome, the significant difference in results reflected by multivariate statistics is likely to be a misleading conclusion.

For simple organisms such as viruses, because their reproduction process is only simple self-replication, and there is no complex arrangement and combination of gene recombination to achieve the genetic diversity for their offspring, such simple organisms can only rely on gene mutation to achieve the genetic variation for offspring. Therefore, the gene mutation rate of simple organisms such as viruses should be significantly higher than that of more advanced organisms. This is a common method for viruses to adapt to various environmental changes in population reproduction. This change includes both biotic and abiotic environmental conditions. However, it is expected that only a small proportion of occurrences in gene mutation may be directly related to the characteristics of virus invasive biology against host cells. Therefore, we should not overstate Big.





































关于基因测序与DNA遗传标记分类方法的论述

如今应用DNA序列片段对各物种或是亚种进行遗传相似性的分析技术中,其中所选用的DNA序列片段与整个基因组遗传信息总量相比,仅仅为其中的一小部分遗传信息,因此所得出的显著性区别很可能是一种误导性结论。有以下三点理由:
一、应用DNA序列片段引物进行扩增化学反应,所得到的信息仅仅是引物的重复基因序列片段和对应的相对分子量,但是没有反映出各种不同序列在基因组上的空间排列组合信息。而基因组上不同基因序列的排列组合信息为遗传变异特性的主要贡献因子,因为DNA引物所揭示的基因序列中绝大部分序列为进化历程中高度保守的序列片段,极少发生DNA自身序列更改,主要依靠各种保守型的序列之间进行排列组合的变化产生遗传变异特性。
二、很少区别卵细胞与精子细胞分别对子代DNA遗传贡献率的区别。对于有性生殖的高等多细胞生物,卵细胞DNA质量远远大于精子细胞DNA质量,因此母系DNA对子代DNA的遗传贡献率要显著高于精子供应者。精子供应者对子代生命信号波(生物电磁波)的遗传相似性的贡献率会显著高于母系亲本代(本人在生物物理学论文中已经阐明)。
三、由于所测试的遗传信息量占基因组遗传信息总量的比例很小,以至于测试结果所反映出的显著性区别很可能是一种误导性结论。
四、对于病毒等简单生物而言,由于其繁殖过程仅仅为简单的自我复制,没有基因重组等复杂排列组合实现子代的遗传多样性,这类简单生物仅仅能依靠基因突变实现子代的遗传变异,因此病毒等简单生物的基因突变率应当显著高于高等生物,而这也是病毒在种群繁殖过程中为了适应多种环境变化的一种常用方法,这种环境条件变化既包括有生命的环境条件、也包括无生命环境条件。病毒基因突变发生量中仅仅有一小部分的概率会与与病毒入侵生理直接相关联。因此不应过分夸大。















References:

All the science terms in English of this journal source from Wikipedia:
https://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/;
本文所有中文科学专业术语引用自百度百科 https://baike.baidu.com/

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