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发表于 2021-9-17 11:16:42 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Personal exposure to carbon monoxide and particulate matter pollution in the urban transport microenvironment in Auckland and Christchurch
Liu, Huan
Academic usage: Visit Statistics

Issue Date: 2009
Degree Grantor: The University of Auckland
Rights: Copyright: the author
Rights (URI):
Advisor: Jenny Salmond

A field campaign was carried out over autumn in 2009 in both Christchurch and Auckland, aiming to assess personal exposure to carbon monoxide and particulate matter pollution in the transport microenvironment during peak traffic time in the morning and afternoon. The representativeness of fixed station monitoring (FSM) with the personal monitoring in the transport microenvironment was examined in both cities. This thesis characterized the determinants of personal exposure to air pollution in the transport microenvironment, in relation to traffic emissions and prevailing meteorology. Car commuters consistently experienced the highest mean exposure to carbon monoxide in both cities, whereas personal exposure to particulate matter pollution was usually highest during journeys by bus in both sites. Cycling mode resulted in relatively lower mean exposures to both CO and particulate pollution as compared to motor vehicles. Notably, train became the ideal mode of transport in Auckland due to the least mean exposure to CO for train commuters. Mean exposure to carbon monoxide was reasonably correlated with mean exposures to PM1.0 or ultrafine particle counts during journeys by bike in both cities. The average exposures to PM10 showed a strong correlation with PM2.5 exposures during all the journeys in both cities, but displayed weaker or little correlation with the exposures to PM1.0 or ultrafine particle counts. The average background CO exposure during bike journeys showed similar levels to ‘Queen St’ station monitoring located at street kerbside in Auckland, but was generally higher than most urban background FSMs (e.g. ‘Takapuna’ station) in Auckland. In comparison, the average background exposures to PM10 or PM2.5 in the transport microenvironment were similar to most urban background FSMs (e.g. ‘Takapuna’ station) in Auckland. Notably, ‘Takapuna’ station monitoring was well correlated with the personal monitoring to both CO and PM10 pollution on bike mode in Auckland, and thus was used to predict both background and mean exposures to CO and PM10 during bike journeys in Auckland. The dominant causal factors associated with the peaks in exposure concentrations during commutes have been identified. These included neighboring diesel vehicle, traffic congestion, and traveling in street canyon and intersections. Each 1 m s-1 increase in wind speed resulted in decreases of mean CO exposure by 0.67 ppm for bike mode and 0.56 ppm for bus mode in Auckland. Temperature was also inversely correlated with CO exposure concentrations in Auckland. Relative humidity tended to ii increase the exposure concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 in both cities. These findings improved our understanding of links between personal exposure to air pollution and health risks in the transport microenvironment, providing guidance for transport policy making and urban design.

Key words: Personal exposure, Carbon monoxide, Particulate matter, Transport microenvironment, Personal monitoring.

This thesis is formally published as book (academic monograph) : 2014. Yi Yang Publishing Company Limited. ISBN 978-988-12551-9-8

   为了评价人群在早上和下午交通高峰时间暴露在交通环境中的大气污染浓度值,此课题小组于 2009 年秋季分别在基督城和奥克兰市对一氧化碳和可吸入颗粒物的大气污染浓度进行了监测。此课题不仅使用了固定监测设备对环境空气污染的背景值进行评价,还同步使用了便携式监测仪器在微观交通环境进行了监测。这项研究针对人群在交通环境中的空气污染暴露值的影响因素进行了探讨,主要体现为交通污染排放和气象条件两个方面。研究表明,与其他交通工具相比,小汽车乘客所面临的一氧化碳空气污染暴露值是最高的,然而公共汽车乘客却面临着可吸入颗粒物污染因子的最高暴露值。与之相比,在自行车人群中两种空气污染因子的暴露值都比较少。值得注意的是,选择火车作为交通工具的乘客面临了最小的空气污染暴露值。在自行车人群中,一氧化碳平均值与 PM1.0 UPCs 浓度值具有正相关性。PM10 监测值与 PM2.5 浓度值表现了很高的正相关性,但是与 PM1.0 UPCs 浓度值弱相关或没有相关性。与‘皇后街’的固定监测站的监测值相比,自行车人群的 CO 污染背景浓度值与之相当,但是总体上高过奥克兰市的大多数固定监测站的监测值。特别注意的是‘塔卡普纳’监测站的一氧化碳和可吸入颗粒物污染监测值与自行车人群的暴露值显示出了很强的正相关,因此被用来预测自行车人群中的大气污染暴露值。在上下班途中导致了大气污染最大暴露值的主导因素已被确定,包括邻近的柴油车,交通拥堵,和地理位置的因素(比如街道峡谷和交叉路口等。风速每增加 1m/s 导致了 CO 暴露值在自行车人群和公交车人群中分别减少了 0.67ppm 0.56ppm。在奥克兰市大气温度与大气污染暴露浓度呈负相关,相对湿度的增加导致了 PM10 PM2.5 的暴露浓度在这两个城市同时增加。这些结果提高了我们对交通环境中空气污染暴露浓度和人群健康之间的理解,并引导了将来交通政策的制定和为城市规划设计提供了理论依据。


硕士论文已经以学术专著正式出版:2014. Yi Yang Publishing Company Limited. ISBN 978-988-12551-9-8

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