Liu Huan (1983-), Master of Science (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland.

 找回密码
 立即注册
搜索
热搜: Academic Merits
查看: 517|回复: 5

Discussion of Tornado Formation Mechanism

[复制链接]

1588

主题

7356

帖子

2万

积分

管理员

Rank: 9Rank: 9Rank: 9

积分
20520
发表于 2021-8-6 17:25:25 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
This is the article 7 in the theme 'Astronomy and Earth Science/天体与地球科学' of Journal of Environment and Health Science (ISSN 2413-1628).

2021. Copyrights Certificate Registered by Brock Chain Technology: Certificate NO. (TTAS_S.0.2_88203198725437984893752783571012502468987624) ; Certificate Verification Web: https://ttas.ntsc.ac.cn


The formally published serials is the printing <Journal of Environment and Health Science (ISSN 2314-1628)>, and the serials NO. is the month/year when the materials accessible on this website, authorized by publisher;
正式发表的期刊是印刷版《环境与卫生科学杂志(ISSN 2314-1628)》,期刊期号为文章内容在本网站上网年/月,出版人许可自行正式发表。

All Copyrights Reserved.

PDF Download


The originality of English content is 95% tested by Turnitin (International).
回复

使用道具 举报

1588

主题

7356

帖子

2万

积分

管理员

Rank: 9Rank: 9Rank: 9

积分
20520
 楼主| 发表于 2021-9-7 10:56:50 | 显示全部楼层
Discussion of Tornado Formation Mechanism
Author: Liu Huan (1983-), Master of Science (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland.
Abstract
So far, the majority of research focus on the meteorological physics process of tornado formation, which discusses the transport, motion, forces of atmosphere substances. A small proportion of research emphasizes on the electrical magnetism resulting in the vortex of air convection as complement to the meteorological physics studies. However, so far rare research specified the air pollutants leading to charged particles in aerosols adhering to clouds, which have been substantially discussed in this article for future development in tornado forecasting study.
Key words:
Tornado Formation, Atmospheric Physics, Atmospheric Chemistry, Magnetism, Charged Particles.  
Introduction
Tornadoes is a violent disaster in nature, destroying the biosphere in earth. The summaries below is the discussion of tornado formation in the past research firstly. Then the original viewpoints is presented next for the future atmospheric research understanding and forecasting the tornado formation.  
1. Formation Stages of Tornadoes
Tornadoes are the consequences of thunderstorms in clouds. Specifically, tornado is a form releasing the concentrated and huge energy of thunderstorm in a small part of clouds. The formation of tornado can be differentiated into four stages[1][2][3]:
Firstly, the unstable troposphere generates a strong updraft, which is further strengthened by the Max air flow crossing the jet stream;
Secondly, due to the interaction with the shear wind in vertical velocity and direction, the updraft stream begins to rotate in the middle of the troposphere, leading to a mesoscale cyclone;
Thirdly, with the development of upward extension in mesoscale cyclone, it becomes thinner and stronger, when a small area of enhanced convergence zone is formed as the tornado core in the middle of cyclone by the same process;
Fourthly, the rotation in the core of a tornado is strong and intensive enough to make the tornado extending to the ground. When the vortex air flow reaches the ground level, the air pressure drops fast and the wind speed rises sharply, forming a stronger tornado.
2. Characteristics of Tornadoes
The tornadoes are classified into non-super-cellular convection and super-cellular convection, with the dominant occurrence as super-cellular [2][6]. The common characteristics of tornadoes are discussed below:
Firstly, the suddenness of both formation and disappearance of tornadoes are the first character [4].
Secondly, tropical cyclones are compared and contrasted to characterize the tornado. For the horizontal characters, the diameter of the eyewall of the tropical cyclone ranges from 100 km to 300 km, while the diameter of the tornado spiral inside the cloud clusters is from 1 km to 10 km, which is much smaller; for the vertical characters, the diameter variation rate from the root to the top of the tropical cyclone is short, with the height of 10 km to 14 km, whereas the diameter variation rate of tornado spiral is much larger with the "elephant trunk" near the ground level extended to the top of the cloud cluster [4].
Third, the speed of a tornado. Although the atmospheric volume of tropical cyclones is 10-100 times higher than tornado, the surface wind speed by tornado is much higher than tropical cyclones. The wind speed near the surface of tropical cyclone usually reach 54m/s, with the extreme value of 70m/s. In comparison, the surface wind speed of tornadoes can often reach more than 120m/s, and the extreme wind speed can exceed 200m/s [4].
3. Meteorological physics explaining tornado formation process
Tornado is a type of violent weather phenomenon, which is formed by the air flow with rapid rotation and vertical hollow tube. Usually its formation is related to low air pressure and wind direction of rotation [4] [5].
Tornadoes often occur in unstable air flow with highly spatial difference in temperature and humidity between the top atmosphere and ground level, consequently resulting in the disturbed flow in atmosphere. When the temperature on the ground is about 30 ℃, it has dropped to - 30 ℃ at an altitude of 8000 meters. This temperature difference causes the cold air to drop sharply, while the hot air to rise rapidly, leading to the turbulence convection between the upper and lower atmosphere, thus forming vortex flow at small scale. When these small vortices gradually expand, coupled with intense turbulence, it is to form large vortex, becoming big damages against the ground or the sea. From the perspective of meteorology, the reason for the formation of tornadoes is summarized as the sharp temperature difference between the upper and lower clouds, and then a small vortex is caused by the convection with cold air falling and hot air rising, when there are cotton like white clouds in the sky, further developed into cumulonimbus clouds. The latent heat inside the cumulonimbus continued to heat up, strengthening the speed of airflow as vortex [4]. The discussion below is the simulated process of vortex in Lab to further explain the tornadoes formation.
4. Simulation of Cyclone in Lab for Tornadoes Formation
There are four preconditions for the formation of tornadoes (cyclones), which can be simulated in experiment. Firstly, free form water vapor; secondly, low ambient temperature (generally below 0 ℃); thirdly, the variation in atmospheric pressure between inside and outside the cumulonimbus clouds; fourthly, formation of Coriolis force. When lightning occurs between cumulonimbus clouds, all the preconditions can be met at all the locations of this earth planet [4].
A cyclone is a moist vortex with a large amount of high temperature water vapor inside the vortex surrounded by low temperature air outside, so that it is a type of moisture vortex with condensing and accelerating force on the outer edge of the vortex [4].
Because of the lower temperature air (generally the temperature is below 0 ℃ where tornadoes occur) outside the moist vortex, the higher temperature water vapor in the rotor condenses on the outer edge, and the part of condensation of water vapor leads to the transitional contraction at the edges. When a certain amount of water vapor is completely transformed into liquid water, the volume will shrink and decrease to 1 / 1800 of the original air volume (under the condition of temperature at 100 ℃, and the standard pressure measured by Gai lusack). As the pressure near 0 ℃ temperature is approximately 50% of standard pressure, so that the volume of water vapor is twice than that under standard pressure. When the other conditions remain the same, the contraction caused by condensation is doubled. Under this condition, the condensed water vapor is filled by the outer atmosphere around the condensation area, as the pressure inside the cyclone is lower than the pressure outside. Consequently, the external atmosphere accelerates the speed of vortex flow [4].
Usually in the normal conditions, at the height of cumulonimbus clouds under the atmospheric temperature below 0 ℃, there is generally no free-form vapor. However, the lightning in cumulonimbus clouds significantly and sharply increases the water vapor volume in air. There are two processes: firstly, lightning sharply heat the air temperature to 10000-20000 ℃, leading to air expansion into 33 times higher volumes than before lightning; secondly, the micro droplets and micro ice crystals in the cloud cluster are vaporized by lightning, further resulting in the volume expansion by 60000 (1800x33) times. Both the magnitude and intensity of the two types of expansion is positively correlated with the volume of lightning [4].
Thirdly, the condensed phase of water vapor on the outer edge, which leads to lower pressure than inner atmosphere in the vortex flow, is also filled by the inner air. However, the air pressure inside the cyclone is lower than outside the cyclone, so the intensity of the inner filling flow is less than that of the outer filling flow [4].
In summary, the explanation above is mainly from the viewpoints of meteorological physics, focusing on the transport, motion and forces of atmospheric substances. However, the research above ignores the forces imposed by earth magnetism and polarized charge cloud, which is further complemented below:   
5. The Magnetism and Electrics Explanation for The Tornado Formation
Peng (2010) analyzes the causes of tornadoes from the viewpoint angle of both earth static magnetism and charged free-form electrons in clouds[7]. After the cloud is exposed to strong sunlight, the water molecules in the cloud or other molecules in the air trigger the photo-chemistry reaction process, yielding electrons with highly escaping energy. Under the effects of the earth's electrostatic field, these high-energy electrons get rid of the constraints of molecules, becoming free electrons. When these free-form electrons gradually separated between the top and bottom of the cloud, leading the cloud to a polarized charged cloud. Zhang (2003) has also explained the tornado formation as the vortex shape of magnetism lines leading to the wind shear causing cyclones in vertical convection[8].   
Peng (2010) explained the polarized charged cloud as following viewpoints: under the strong sunlight, the atmospheric pressure changes regionally, resulting in atmospheric convection and wind, which accelerates the horizontal flow of clouds. Due to the huge volume of large clouds, the flow velocity of clouds differed between the top and bottom. When the horizontal wind force exceeds the gravity between the upper and lower clouds, the wind can separate the top clouds from the bottom clouds. The upper cloud becomes positively charged cloud, while the lower cloud becomes negatively charged cloud. In this way, the charged cloud generates static charges.
Peng (2010) and Zhang (2003) viewpoints further explain the forces underlying the wind shear, forming vortex convection as complementary knowledge to previous research. However, both research have not fully discussed the meteorological conditions resulting in the cyclone formation in nature. Moreover, Peng (2010) and Zhang (2003) research have not specified the atmospheric chemistry substances causing the electric particles, which is further discussed below in my article:  
6. Atmospheric Photo-Chemistry Causing Charged Particles
6.1. N2, O2 and O3 in the atmosphere selectively absorb solar radiation of short waves, which triggers the photo-chemistry reactions [9][10]:
N2+hv→N+N    Absorbing solar radiation with wavelength λ<120 nm
O2+hv→O+O    Absorbing solar radiation with wavelength λ<240 nm
O3+hv→O2+O   Absorbing solar radiation with wavelength λ=220~290 nm
The atmospheric pollutants of NO2, SO2, alkyl nitrous acid (rono), aldehydes, ketones and alkyl peroxides (roor ') can also generate photochemical reactions:
NO2+bv→NO·+O
HNO2(HONO)+hv→NO+HO·
RONO+hv→NO·+RO·
CH2O+hv→H·+HCO
ROOR′+hv→RO·+R′O·
The above air pollution species generates photo-chemistry reactions under the solar radiation of wavelengths between 300~400 nm.
However, the above research does not include the chemical substances causing ozone depletion in atmosphere, which is further summarized below:
6.2. When ozone reacts with H, OH, NO, Cl and Br, it will be catalyzed and decomposed into O2. Chlorofluorocarbons are considered as chemical substances that destroy the ozone layer because they decompose Cl and Br atoms under hv solar radiation, and the photo-chemical reaction formula is below [11][12]:
CCl3F CCl2F ·+Cl·
Cl·+O3 O2+ClO·
ClO·+O· Cl·+O2
RBr R·+Br·
Br·+O3 O2+BrO·
BrO·+O        Br·+O2
NO+O3 → NO2+O2
NO2+O· → NO+O2
6.3. It is reported that secondary aerosols was significantly associated with the photo-chemistry reactions in air pollutants, and consequently PM1 is considered as the indicator to evaluate photo-chemistry pollution[13]. This findings reveals that the charged free-form atoms, generated in photo-chemistry reactions, usually adhere to ultra fine particles in atmosphere, rather than gaseous form. It is further deduced in my article that this finding is especially important for the monitoring research in cloud to relate the photo-chemistry pollutants with the tornado incidents.        
7. Discussion for further development
Original viewpoints are discussed in my previous articles as[14]:
The formation mechanism and causes of tornadoes faults can be easily deduced after fully understanding the discussion of stratification mechanism and the dark matter theory in the fourth dimension space in this journal. It can be summarized as following viewpoints:
The neutral substance layer arranged symmetrically between yin and yang poles can be easily formed on the substances boundary between different densities in atmosphere, and the neutral substance layer blocks the transport of polar molecules, thus forming the boundary and stratification of the atmosphere. This leads to significantly different potential energy between different atmospheric layers on the boundary, and this difference in potential energy can be caused by different atmospheric pressure, density or electric charges between both sides of the boundary. If the boundary of the atmosphere suddenly ruptures, the layer with higher atmospheric potential energy will release the airflow energy to the layer with lower atmospheric potential energy, thus forming a vortex flow.
For the tornado events with huge energy across different regions, it should be directly related to the sudden rupture of the atmospheric boundary, which causes the unstable displacement of dark matter in the fourth dimension space, thus amplifying the energy. The neutral substance layer arranged symmetrically between yin and yang poles required energy binders of different nature in the fourth dimension space, compared with the polar substances. This sudden and quick shift and replacement of dark matter leads to the sudden reduction of mass in micro-particles in three dimensions space, consequently releasing nuclear energy.
This formation mechanisms/causes of tornadoes, is also applicable on the collapse of geological faults leading to geological disasters, is a sudden, occasional, and unforeseeable event. However, future research should focus on the pre-conditions triggering the second reason: in which meteorological/geological conditions, dark matter sudden shift?
This paper further discuss below:
1. Taking atmospheric stratification as an example, it is to discuss the potential energy difference on both sides of the atmospheric boundary layer, which is due to the difference in electric charges;
2.The destruction of the ozone layer is likely to be one of the significant reasons for the increased probability of tornado events, in which ozone molecules produce free-form ozone atoms with positive charges under ultraviolet light, thus destroying the neutral substance layer in the atmospheric boundary layer, increasing the probability of sudden rupture of the boundary layer;
3.Cl chlorine atoms in atmospheric pollutants are also likely to be one of the reasons for the increased probability of tornado events, as chlorine atoms under ultraviolet light produces free-form chlorine atoms of negative charges. Together with the positive charge of ozone atoms above, it increases the electric charge difference between both sides of the atmospheric boundary layer, which is likely to cause higher energy potential differences on both sides. Further more, the difference between positive and negative charges causes lightning events, which usually increasingly occur during tornado events, so that it further supports this academic viewpoint;
4.In this journal, the relationship between van der Waals force and dark matter have been discussed to reveal the effect on electric conductor, caused by the adhesion force of dark matter on the fourth dimension axis. Due to the neutralization of electric charges, the electric field effect of neutral boundary layer is weaker, and the adhesion force of dark matter underlying neutral boundary layer is strong so that the free electrons motion of cutting the fourth dimension is restricted. In comparison, under UV irradiation condition, the photochemical reaction produces the free charged atoms which are highly unstable, which is much less influenced by dark matter. When massive free charged atoms penetrate the rupture space of the neutral boundary layer, the dark matter suddenly and sharply increases the adhesion force against the free-form charged atoms at transient time, to make the whole substance layer maintain its inertial and stable form. This instantaneous increase in the adhesion force on the fourth dimension makes the mass of micro-particles in three-dimensional space instantly reduced, thus releasing nuclear energy. Therefore, the accumulation of electric charged particles between different sides of the substance boundary layers should be one of the compulsory conditions leading to the releasing of nuclear energy. Tornadoes are evolved from local scale, small wind to intercontinental scale, strong wind, or geological disasters are evolved from local shaking to the displacement at geological plate level, and both are closely related to this condition.
5. The atmospheric pollutants, adhering to ultra fine aerosols in clouds, produce free-form charged atoms with different electric charges in the photochemical reaction, resulting in the electric potential difference between different clouds, triggering lightning. Consequently, the atmospheric pollutants increase the incidence of lightning between the different clouds. However, so far the understanding of air pollution species, resulting in charged aerosols in clouds, is poor, which consequently becomes the research gaps/blanks to fill in for the future development in forecasting tornado incidences.
6. Future research objectives: firstly, to relate the photo-chemistry air pollutants with tornado incidents and lightning occurrences by monitoring the ultra fine aerosols in cloud; to simulate the photo-chemistry reaction in Lab to specify the positive or negative charges, and the amount of charges generated by each air pollution species; to monitor the meteorological conditions under which the charged aerosols would accumulate in clouds.
7. In most cases, tornado scale is the local scale only without evolved into intercontinental scale. There are two major factors causing the release of nuclear energy when the pre-conditions exceed the critical state value: firstly, the stability of neutral boundary layers is the pre-condition. The higher stability in neutral boundary layer, the stronger adhering force imposed by the dark matter in the fourth dimension, and eventually the more mass to be reduced in the three-dimension spaces. Secondly, the voltage potential accumulated between both sides of the boundary layers would be positively correlated with the nuclear energy releasing incidents. This mechanism is also applicable on earthquakes formation, which will be discussed in next article. Consequently, the simulation and monitoring of both pre-conditions would become the key to predict the destructive tornadoes and earthquakes in the future research.  
References
[1] 龙卷风。搜狗百科。
[2] Markowski, P.M. and Richardson, Y.P., 2009. Tornadogenesis: Our current understanding, forecasting considerations, and questions to guide future research. Atmospheric Research, 93(1-3), pp.3-10.
[3] 王继文, 郭丽萍. 龙卷风形成原因及其危害[J]. 黑龙江水利科技, 2011(3):165-165.
[4] 龙卷风灾害。搜狗百科。
[5] 龙卷风成因。搜狗百科。
[6] Glossary of meteorology - tornado.American Meteorological Society, AMS. 2013-10-08.
[7] 彭寿斌.龙卷风的成因推理分析[J].中国高新技术企业,2010(24):183-184.
[8] 张宝盈.人工控制龙卷风的可能性——龙卷风成因新探[J].自然杂志,2003(01):58-61+64.
[9] 光化学反应。搜狗百科。
[10] 藤井徹.光化学烟雾的发生机制[J].气象科技,1984(01):46-47.
[11] 臭氧层破坏物质。搜狗百科。
[12] 成广兴,邵军.臭氧层的化学破坏及其对策[J].化学通报,1999(09):44-47.
[13] 赵辰航,耿福海,马承愚,陈勇航,毛晓琴.上海地区光化学污染中气溶胶特征研究[J].中国环境科学,2015,35(02):356-363.
[14] Liu Huan. Discussion of The Formation Mechanism of Tornadoes and Geological Faults. Journal of Environment and Health Science. June. 2021.

回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

1588

主题

7356

帖子

2万

积分

管理员

Rank: 9Rank: 9Rank: 9

积分
20520
 楼主| 发表于 2021-8-6 17:26:40 | 显示全部楼层
提示: 该帖被管理员或版主屏蔽
回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

1588

主题

7356

帖子

2万

积分

管理员

Rank: 9Rank: 9Rank: 9

积分
20520
 楼主| 发表于 2021-8-7 09:12:00 | 显示全部楼层
提示: 该帖被管理员或版主屏蔽
回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

1588

主题

7356

帖子

2万

积分

管理员

Rank: 9Rank: 9Rank: 9

积分
20520
 楼主| 发表于 2021-8-26 11:04:18 | 显示全部楼层
提示: 该帖被管理员或版主屏蔽
回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

1588

主题

7356

帖子

2万

积分

管理员

Rank: 9Rank: 9Rank: 9

积分
20520
 楼主| 发表于 2021-9-7 10:09:22 | 显示全部楼层
提示: 该帖被管理员或版主屏蔽
回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

您需要登录后才可以回帖 登录 | 立即注册

本版积分规则

Archiver|手机版|小黑屋|Liu Huan ( Copyrights Reserved

GMT+8, 2021-12-2 06:22 , Processed in 0.192153 second(s), 22 queries .

Powered by Discuz! X3.2

© 2001-2013 Comsenz Inc.

快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表