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Astronomy and Earth Science/天体与地球科学

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 楼主| 发表于 2020-12-23 08:37:44 | 显示全部楼层
A viewpoint to the formation of substance boundary layers:
In the three-dimension materials space, the boundaries commonly exists among the materials of solid state, liquid state or gas state. For example, atmosphere is divided into troposphere and stratosphere by the clear boundary layer between both; the water temperature is divided into different thermal layers along the depth of a lake by the clear boundary between water layers; apparent lithologic stratifications is segregated by the geological boundary between them.

The formation of substance boundary: the polarity of polar molecules and atoms (or the induced van der Waals force of non-polar molecules and atoms) leads to the symmetrical arrangement between positive and negative poles. As the whole substances, it tends to be a neutral substance boundary. This neutral substance boundary becomes the obstacle stopping  the polar substances from the transmission through it, resulting in different substance layers.     


Previously published on 04/05/2020.
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-12-23 08:56:40 | 显示全部楼层
本文在之前的文章中引入了第四维度轴上的磁力线揭示了万有引力的产生。现今补充修改如下观点:原子是基本粒子最原始的物质形态;我们所在的三维空间中,原子中的基本粒子运动模型可以简化为电子围绕原子核做自转运动,原子核与电子为物质磁场属性的阴阳两极;与此同时,第四维度轴上的磁力线与三维空间垂直,阴阳两极基本粒子在第四维度轴的磁力线上做切割运动,从而产生了电荷。电磁感应定理的存在,是电子围绕原子核做自转运动的原始驱动力;对于多原子物质聚合形态的分子,在此前论述中,在第四维度轴上的暗物质作为能量粘合剂聚合了单原子物质,使得三维空间分子结构中的阴阳极性在第四维度轴上的磁力线的切割运动,进行着“公转”运动。相似的,分子结构中的物质围绕整体质量磁力线的几何中心做“公转”运动;余此类推,地球自转和其它星系公转运动的原始推动力,都是三维空间中的阴阳两极物质属性与第四维度磁力线做切割运动时电磁感应定理产生。

本文在物理化学一章中,电流现象应该揭示为电磁波在不同微观粒子之间的脉冲现象更为合适,不应揭示为电子在不同原子之间的流动(否则就会出现大量从物质中高速迸发出的正电荷质子的现象,以至于所有电导体都跟放射线元素一样,这很明显是过时的理论理解)。所以分子结构通常也跟原子内部结构一样,在公转过程中有内部中性屏蔽作用,但是更为微弱一些。原因是第四维度暗物质的粘合剂使得分子内部微观粒子相对于第四维度轴的运动更加趋向于平行切线运动,而原子内部粒子相对于第四维度轴的运动是更加趋向于垂直运动。这也使得分子中的微观粒子相对于第四维度轴的磁力线所进行的切割运动产生的电场效应更弱一些。因此,物理化学中单原子形态存在的物质(比如金属)或是单晶体(比如C60)物质的导电性能普遍高于多元素化学物质的导电性能,与暗物质的粘合力特性有很大关联。通常单元素物质形态聚合体所需要的粘合力小于多元素物质形态聚合体。这正好可以从分子在三维空间的数据结论逆向反证出其在第四维度轴上暗物质的粘合力,提供了反证推算方法。

微观粒子结构中的质量磁力线:本文提出质量磁力线概念,微观粒子三维空间中的质量磁力线为质量空间分布和磁场量(可以电荷量衡量)空间分布的函数。因此微观粒子(比如一个分子)的质量磁力线的空间分布几何中心既有异于质量空间分布的几何中心点,也不同于电荷量空间分布的几何中心点;而是二者的相互作用点。而这个质量磁力线的空间几何中心点正好是物质集合体自转运动的中心点(不管是微观原子、分子自旋运动,还是天体旋转运动)。可以推测出,简单原子中的质量磁力线几何中心不是原子核的中心,仅仅可以定义为更加接近于原子核中心点,因为电子质量相对于原子核的质量小很多,原子核中心点近似于整个原子质量几何中心点。所以电子内部运动简化为电子围绕原子核做自转运动也是过于简单的理解。其实是原子核与电子围绕其质量磁力线几何中心做自旋运动。这对于天体物理学中旋转运动理论计算和高分子合成结构的优化提供了理论依据进行3D分子运动模拟。另外,由于正电荷的原子核与负电荷的电子共同围绕原子的质量磁力线几何中心做自转运动,因此两者各自由于自转产生的电磁波的基本要素特性有显著不同,有待进一步论述。这对下一步物质的光谱分析的应用有重要意义。



In the previous paper, the magnetic line on the fourth dimension axis is introduced to reveal the generation of universal gravitation. At present, the academic viewpoints are supplemented and modified as: atom is the most primitive material form of elementary particles; in our three-dimensional space, the motion model of elementary particles in atom can be simplified as the rotation of electrons around the nucleus, and the nuclei and electrons are the negative and positive poles of matter's magnetic properties; at the same time, the magnetic line on the fourth dimension axis is perpendicular to the three-dimensional space. These elementary particles cut along the magnetic line of on the fourth dimensional axis, thus generating electric charges. The existence of the electromagnetic induction theorem is the original driving force for electrons to rotate around the nucleus; for molecules with poly-atomic aggregation form, in the previous discussion, the dark matter on the fourth dimensional axis as an energy binder polymerizes mono-atomic matter, which makes the cutting motion on magnetic lines of the fourth axis, leading to ‘the revolution movement’. Similarly, the matter in molecular structure makes "revolution" around the geometric center of the magnetic mass line; by analogy, the original driving force of the earth's rotation and the revolution of other galaxies are generated by the electromagnetic induction theorem when the material properties of Yin and Yang poles in three-dimensional space are cutting the fourth dimensional magnetic line.

In the chapter of physical chemistry, the current phenomenon should be revealed as the pulse phenomenon of electromagnetic waves between different atoms or molecules, rather than the flow of electrons between different atoms (otherwise, there will be a large number of positively charged protons bursting out at high speed, so that all electric conductors are the same as radioactive elements, which is obviously out of date). Therefore, the molecular structure is usually similar to the internal structure of the atom, which leads to internal neutralization and shield effect during the revolution motion, but it is weaker. The reason is that the binder of the fourth dimension dark matter makes the movement of elementary particles inside molecules more parallel to the fourth dimension axis, while the motion of particles inside atoms is more vertical relatively to the fourth dimension axis. This also makes the electric field effect by the cutting motion of the elementary particles in the molecules relative to the magnetic line of fourth axis is weaker, compared with atoms. Therefore, in physical chemistry, the conductivity of single atom materials (such as metals) or single element crystals (such as C60) is generally higher than that of multi-elements chemical compounds, which is closely related to the adhesion properties of dark matter. Generally, the adhesive force required by single element polymer is less than that of multi-elements form polymer. It provides the inverse deduced/demonstrated methods through the data conclusion of molecules in three-dimensional space to extrapolate the adhesion of dark matter on the fourth dimension axis.

Magnetic mass lines in micro-particle structure: the concept of magnetic mass line is proposed in this paper. The magnetic mass line in three-dimensional space of micro particles is a function of the spatial distribution of both mass and magnetic field (magnetic fields can be measured by electric charges). Therefore, the geometric center of the spatial distribution of the magnetic mass line within the micro particle (such as a molecule) is not only different from the geometric center point of mass spatial distribution, but also different from the geometric center point of the spatial distribution of electric charges; it is the interaction point of the doubles. The geometric center point of the magnetic mass line is exactly the center point of the rotation motion of the materials aggregated as a whole (such as the rotation motion of electrons in atom, molecule revolution motion discussed above, or celestial rotation motion). It can be inferred that the geometric center of the magnetic mass line in a atom is not the center of the nucleus, which can only be interpreted to be closer to the nuclear center point, because the electron mass is much smaller than the nuclear mass, and the nuclear center point is closer to the geometric center point of the whole atomic mass. Therefore, it is too simple to simplify that the internal motion of the electron in an atom is defined as the rotation of the electrons around the nucleus. In fact, both the nucleus and the electron rotate around the geometric center of its magnetic mass line of an atom. This provides a basis for the theoretical calculation of rotational motion in astrophysics and the optimization of synthetic structure of polymers by 3D simulation of molecule movement.In addition, since the nucleus of positive charge and the electron of negative charge rotate around the geometric center of the magnetic mass field line in atom respectively, the characteristics of electromagnetic waves generated by each rotation should be significant different in the element properties of electromagnetic waves from each other, which needs to be further discussed. This leads to significant effects on the spectral analysis on materials in the next.
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-12-23 14:47:36 | 显示全部楼层
本文在之前的文章中引入了第四维度轴上的磁力线揭示了万有引力的产生。现今补充修改如下观点:原子是基本粒子最原始的物质形态;我们所在的三维空间中,原子中的基本粒子运动模型可以简化为电子围绕原子核做自转运动,原子核与电子为物质磁场属性的阴阳两极;与此同时,第四维度轴上的磁力线与三维空间垂直,阴阳两极基本粒子在第四维度轴的磁力线上做切割运动,从而产生了电荷。电磁感应定理的存在,是电子围绕原子核做自转运动的原始驱动力;对于多原子物质聚合形态的分子,在此前论述中,在第四维度轴上的暗物质作为能量粘合剂聚合了单原子物质,使得三维空间分子结构中的阴阳极性在第四维度轴上的磁力线的切割运动,进行着“公转”运动。相似的,分子结构中的物质围绕整体质量磁力线的几何中心做“公转”运动;余此类推,地球自转和其它星系公转运动的原始推动力,都是三维空间中的阴阳两极物质属性与第四维度磁力线做切割运动时电磁感应定理产生。

本文在物理化学一章中,电流现象应该揭示为电磁波在不同微观粒子之间的脉冲现象更为合适,不应揭示为电子在不同原子之间的流动(否则就会出现大量从物质中高速迸发出的正电荷质子的现象,以至于所有电导体都跟放射线元素一样,这很明显是过时的理论理解)。所以分子结构通常也跟原子内部结构一样,在公转过程中有内部中性屏蔽作用,但是更为微弱一些。原因是第四维度暗物质的粘合剂使得分子内部微观粒子相对于第四维度轴的运动更加趋向于平行切线运动,而原子内部粒子相对于第四维度轴的运动是更加趋向于垂直运动。这也使得分子中的微观粒子相对于第四维度轴的磁力线所进行的切割运动产生的电场效应更弱一些。因此,物理化学中单原子形态存在的物质(比如金属)或是单晶体(比如C60)物质的导电性能普遍高于多元素化学物质的导电性能,与暗物质的粘合力特性有很大关联。通常单元素物质形态聚合体所需要的粘合力小于多元素物质形态聚合体。这正好可以从分子在三维空间的数据结论逆向反证出其在第四维度轴上暗物质的粘合力,提供了反证推算方法。

微观粒子结构中的质量磁力线:本文提出质量磁力线概念,微观粒子三维空间中的质量磁力线为质量空间分布和磁场量(可以电荷量衡量)空间分布的函数。因此微观粒子(比如一个分子)的质量磁力线的空间分布几何中心既有异于质量空间分布的几何中心点,也不同于电荷量空间分布的几何中心点;而是二者的相互作用点。而这个质量磁力线的空间几何中心点正好是物质集合体自转运动的中心点(不管是微观原子、分子自旋运动,还是天体旋转运动)。可以推测出,简单原子中的质量磁力线几何中心不是原子核的中心,仅仅可以定义为更加接近于原子核中心点,因为电子质量相对于原子核的质量小很多,原子核中心点近似于整个原子质量几何中心点。所以电子内部运动简化为电子围绕原子核做自转运动也是过于简单的理解。其实是原子核与电子围绕其质量磁力线几何中心做自旋运动。这对于天体物理学中旋转运动理论计算和高分子合成结构的优化提供了理论依据进行3D分子运动模拟。另外,由于正电荷的原子核与负电荷的电子共同围绕原子的质量磁力线几何中心做自转运动,因此两者各自由于自转产生的电磁波的基本要素特性有显著不同,有待进一步论述。这对下一步物质的电磁波谱分析的应用有重要意义。比如,γ射线的特性应当揭示为正电荷原子核围绕原子质量磁力线的几何中心做自转运动产生的电磁波。与电子产生的电磁波谱相比,γ射线产生的电磁波不仅由于自转半径更小导致波长更短,频率更高,而且由于其能量集中导致其穿透性、与能量远远高于电子产生电磁波。本文认为正电荷原子核围绕原子质量磁力线的几何中心做自转运动产生的电磁波与电子产生电磁波相比,传播速度更快(两者电磁波传播速度不会相同),而且由于两者之间的电荷相异,电磁波的波峰点和波谷点所带极性在两种电磁波之间也相反。这就是为什么γ射线穿透力很高的主要原因。比如,如果原子核产生的电磁波波峰定义为阳极,波谷定义为阴极;则电子产生的电磁波波峰定义为阴极,波谷定义为阳极。能量流密度很高的γ射线从逆向传播方向与电子产生的电磁波相接触,则可以容易中和并且穿透。因此对于电磁波的波粒二象性定理,本文应当把波峰与波谷的极性作为基本要素进行分析,这与机械波有所不同。

In the previous paper, the magnetic line on the fourth dimension axis is introduced to reveal the generation of universal gravitation. At present, the academic viewpoints are supplemented and modified as: atom is the most primitive material form of elementary particles; in our three-dimensional space, the motion model of elementary particles in atom can be simplified as the rotation of electrons around the nucleus, and the nuclei and electrons are the negative and positive poles of matter's magnetic properties; at the same time, the magnetic line on the fourth dimension axis is perpendicular to the three-dimensional space. These elementary particles cut along the magnetic line of on the fourth dimensional axis, thus generating electric charges. The existence of the electromagnetic induction theorem is the original driving force for electrons to rotate around the nucleus; for molecules with poly-atomic aggregation form, in the previous discussion, the dark matter on the fourth dimensional axis as an energy binder polymerizes mono-atomic matter, which makes the cutting motion on magnetic lines of the fourth axis, leading to ‘the revolution movement’. Similarly, the matter in molecular structure makes "revolution" around the geometric center of the magnetic mass line; by analogy, the original driving force of the earth's rotation and the revolution of other galaxies are generated by the electromagnetic induction theorem when the material properties of Yin and Yang poles in three-dimensional space are cutting the fourth dimensional magnetic line.

In the chapter of physical chemistry, the current phenomenon should be revealed as the pulse phenomenon of electromagnetic waves between different atoms or molecules, rather than the flow of electrons between different atoms (otherwise, there will be a large number of positively charged protons bursting out at high speed, so that all electric conductors are the same as radioactive elements, which is obviously out of date). Therefore, the molecular structure is usually similar to the internal structure of the atom, which leads to internal neutralization and shield effect during the revolution motion, but it is weaker. The reason is that the binder of the fourth dimension dark matter makes the movement of elementary particles inside molecules more parallel to the fourth dimension axis, while the motion of particles inside atoms is more vertical relatively to the fourth dimension axis. This also makes the electric field effect by the cutting motion of the elementary particles in the molecules relative to the magnetic line of fourth axis is weaker, compared with atoms. Therefore, in physical chemistry, the conductivity of single atom materials (such as metals) or single element crystals (such as C60) is generally higher than that of multi-elements chemical compounds, which is closely related to the adhesion properties of dark matter. Generally, the adhesive force required by single element polymer is less than that of multi-elements form polymer. It provides the inverse deduced/demonstrated methods through the data conclusion of molecules in three-dimensional space to extrapolate the adhesion of dark matter on the fourth dimension axis.

Magnetic mass lines in micro-particle structure: the concept of magnetic mass line is proposed in this paper. The magnetic mass line in three-dimensional space of micro particles is a function of the spatial distribution of both mass and magnetic field (magnetic fields can be measured by electric charges). Therefore, the geometric center of the spatial distribution of the magnetic mass line within the micro particle (such as a molecule) is not only different from the geometric center point of mass spatial distribution, but also different from the geometric center point of the spatial distribution of electric charges; it is the interaction point of the doubles. The geometric center point of the magnetic mass line is exactly the center point of the rotation motion of the materials aggregated as a whole (such as the rotation motion of electrons in atom, molecule revolution motion discussed above, or celestial rotation motion). It can be inferred that the geometric center of the magnetic mass line in a atom is not the center of the nucleus, which can only be interpreted to be closer to the nuclear center point, because the electron mass is much smaller than the nuclear mass, and the nuclear center point is closer to the geometric center point of the whole atomic mass. Therefore, it is too simple to simplify that the internal motion of the electron in an atom is defined as the rotation of the electrons around the nucleus. In fact, both the nucleus and the electron rotate around the geometric center of its magnetic mass line of an atom. This provides a basis for the theoretical calculation of rotational motion in astrophysics and the optimization of synthetic structure of polymers by 3D simulation of molecule movement.In addition, since the nucleus of positive charge and the electron of negative charge rotate around the geometric center of the magnetic mass field line in atom respectively, the characteristics of electromagnetic waves generated by each rotation should be significant different in the element properties of electromagnetic waves from each other, which needs to be further discussed. This is of great significance to the application on the electromagnetic spectrum analysis in the next. For example, the properties of γray should explained as the electromagnetic waves generated by the rotation of positively charged nucleus around the geometric center of magnetic mass field line in atom. Compared to the electromagnetic spectrum produced by electrons, the electromagnetic waves produced by γray does not only have shorter wavelengths and higher frequencies because of their smaller rotation radius, but also leads to higher penetration capacity due to its energy of higher intensity in nucleus, and the energy of electromagnetic waves produced by nucleus is much higher than the electron consequently. In this paper, it is to further present that the electromagnetic wave produced by the rotation of positively charged nucleus around the geometric center of the atomic mass magnetic field line transmits at faster speed than the electromagnetic wave produced by an electron. Further because of the electric charge difference between the nucleus and the electrons, the wave crest peak and the wave trough bottom point have opposite polarity between these two electromagnetic waves respectively. This is the main reason why the γray penetration capacity is high. For example, if the wave peaks of the electromagnetic waves produced by the nucleus are defined as the anode and the bottom points of waves are defined as the cathode respectively, then the peaks of the electromagnetic waves produced by the electrons are defined as the cathode and the trough bottoms are the anode correspondingly. γRadiation of high energy flow density can easily neutralize and penetrate the electromagnetic waves generated by electrons when they transmit to meet each other in the opposite direction. Therefore, for the wave-particle duality analysis of electromagnetic waves, the polarity of the peaks and bottoms of waves should be analyzed as a basic element in this paper, which is different from that of mechanical waves.
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-12-30 17:11:07 | 显示全部楼层
Article 1: The materials, relativity and its philosophy attributes/物质、相对论、与哲学属性

Author: Liu Huan, MSc (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland.

1.The attributes of materials and fourth dimension time-space
There are three first attributes of materials: mass, energy and magnetism;the other attributes such as movement or electric charges are secondary attributes caused by the first attributes. In this article, the time-space observed by us is at three dimensions and is just a point on the axis in the fourth dimension space. However, there are the other time-spaces (or points), which can not be observed by us but are NOT independent of our time-space observed by us, along this fourth dimension axis of the universe. According to the relativity proposed by Einstein, once materials reach the velocity of photon, time goes back. However, this book does not agree with this viewpoint! This three dimension time-space, which is being observed by us, is just traveling along the fourth axis, the time axis in the universe. Once the three attributes are defined, then the absolute vacuum in the universe is defined as the condition ‘no mass, no energy, no life signals,’ which is infinite in the universe.  

'Three Laws of Newton' only suits for this three dimension time-space observed by us. However, the movement of materials in this time-space also meets the movement law (the fourth law) which is relative against other time-spaces on the time axis of the universe which can not be observed by us, that's why this time-space observed by us is expanding and all the stars are moving away from earth! (If sufficient data is available, equations of the fourth law can be deduced). The fourth movement law across different time-spaces would be determined by this magnetic nature, which explains the movement rhythm above more reasonably. It is noted that the the galaxy as a whole must have both negative and positive poles as well!

2.Energy conservation law and light velocity
Light speed is defined as the transmission velocity of photon in vacuum condition in the dictionary, which obviously is an ideal conception. However, there is another materials in the universe, called as magnetism which reaches infinite transmission velocity in the fourth dimension time-space and is the only materials that is able to transfer across different time-space in the fourth axis. Quantum photons are defined as the first element particles in this time-space. Quantum photons conduct cutting movement along the fourth dimension magnetism, creating light waves and other frequencies of electromagnetic wave. The other element particles (such as protons or electrons) in atoms are synthesized by the first element particles - quantum photons.   




This is the revised materials of Chapter 11 in book “Proceedings for Degree of Postgraduate Diploma in Environmental Science (3rd Edition).” published in 2016. Revised on 30/12/2020.  

References:
All the science terms in English of this journal source from Wikipedia:
https://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/;
本文所有中文科学专业术语引用自百度百科 https://baike.baidu.com/
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-12-30 17:12:15 | 显示全部楼层
Article 2. The anti-matter of symmetric three-dimensional spaces along the fourth dimension axis/第四维度轴上的对称三维空间与反物质

Author: Liu Huan, MSc (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland.

1.The principle of anti-matter.
The inter-atomic forces, except that the force of covalent bond is the Coulomb force between symmetric three-dimension spaces, the rest forces can be classified as the above mechanics. Covalent bond force is a Coulomb force between two symmetric three-dimensional spaces. In our three-dimension space, the protons electrons are positively charged and the electrons are negatively charged; the correspondingly symmetric three-dimensional space along the fourth dimension axis is called antimatter, in which the protons are negatively charged and the electrons are positively charged.When discussing the motion law and force analysis of the micro-particles inside the atom, we often simplify it as the self rotation motion of the negative charge electron around the positive charge nucleus. From the force analysis of at a central point of electrons, one is the centrifugal force, and the other is the centripetal force generated by positive and negative charges, so as to achieve force balance; However, when the force analysis is conducted on nucleus, positive charge nucleus is subjected to the pulling force produced by Coulomb force correspondingly to the centripetal force, how to achieve the equilibrium of force analysis? This question is particularly evident in hydrogen atoms of mono-atomic form, such as stellar matter. For the further discussion of atomic physics, why electrons and protons in atoms (such as radioactive elements) cannot merge and neutralize due to the mutual attraction of Coulomb force in atoms after half-life of atomic decay? Clearly, the negative and positive charged particles move away from each other and leaving out of the atoms at high speed. These questions can only be resolved by presenting the anti-matter principles between two symmetric space of three-dimensional along the fourth dimension in this article. Next let’s discuss further for more complex cases. For example, there are two covalently bonded atoms (atom1 and atom2). There are electron 1 and proton 1 in atom 1 ; and electron 2 and proton 2 in atom 2, respectively. The negatively charged electron 1 is pulled and paired by the positively charged electron in its correspondingly symmetric three-dimensional space; is also pulled and paired by positively charged proton 2 in atom 2 due to the covalent bond; the positively charged proton 2 is pulled and paired by the negatively charged electron 2 in atom 2; then the negatively charged electron 2 is pulled and paired by the positively charged electron in its correspondingly symmetric three-dimensional space. This series relationship also exists on electron 2 - proton 1 - electron 1. It's like a series of batteries, from positive to negative, positive to negative... Cyclic connection;

反物质原理。原子间作用力,除了共价键力是对称时空之间的库仑力性质,其余的都可以归为上述力学。共价键力是两个对称三维空间之间的库仑力作用。其中我们所在的三维空间质子带正电荷、电子带负电荷;则在第四维度轴上与它对应的对称三维空间中的质子带负电荷、电子带正电荷,即为反物质。在讨论原子内部粒子运动规律和受力分析时候,我们常常简化为负电荷电子围绕正电荷原子核做高速自旋转运动。从电子做单点受力分析,一方面是离心力的作用,另一方面是正负电荷产生的向心力作用,从而实现受力平衡;但是从原子核做单点受力分析,正电荷原子核受到库仑力产生的与向心力对应的拉力,如何做平衡受力分析?这个问题在单原子形态存在的氢原子(比如恒星天体物质)中尤其明显。更进一步讨论原子物理之后,原子(比如放射性元素)在半衰期后为何正负粒子之间不会由于库仑力的相互吸引力而在原子内部合并中和?而是带电粒子高速远离并射出原子外?这些命题都必须借助本文提出的对称三维物质空间中的反物质原理才能解决。再进一步讨论更为复杂的情景:比如两个共价键配对的原子。原子1中有电子1和质子1;原子2中有电子2和质子2。 其中负电荷电子1在第四维度轴上受其对应的对称三维时空中对应的正电荷电子牵引,并在自身三维时空中形成共价键的原子2中的其中一个正电荷质子2可以配对牵引,而这个正电荷质子2又可与自身原子中的另一个对应负电荷电子2牵引,最后这个负电荷电子2又在第四维度轴上受其对应的对称三维时空中正电荷电子牵引配对。这个串联关系同样作用于电子2-质子1-电子1. 这就像多个串联电池一样正负极、正负极。。。循环连接。



This is the revised materials of Chapter 11 in book “Proceedings for Degree of Postgraduate Diploma in Environmental Science (3rd Edition).” published in 2016. Revised on 30/12/2020.  

References:
All the science terms in English of this journal source from Wikipedia:
https://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/;
本文所有中文科学专业术语引用自百度百科 https://baike.baidu.com/
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-12-30 17:13:07 | 显示全部楼层
Article 3: The magnetism across time-spaces and the driving force of celestial rotation/磁场的时空穿越与天体旋转原动力

Author: Liu Huan, MSc (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland.


1. The magnetism along the fourth dimension axis
Atom is the most primitive material form of elementary particles; in our three-dimensional space, the motion model of elementary particles in atom can be simplified as the rotation of electrons around the nucleus, and the nuclei and electrons are the negative and positive poles of matter's magnetic properties; at the same time, the magnetic line on the fourth dimension axis is perpendicular to the three-dimensional space. These elementary particles cut along the magnetic line of on the fourth dimensional axis, thus generating electric charges. The existence of the electromagnetic induction theorem is the original driving force for electrons to rotate around the nucleus; for molecules with poly-atomic aggregation form, in the previous discussion, the dark matter on the fourth dimensional axis as an energy binder polymerizes mono-atomic matter, which makes the cutting motion on magnetic lines of the fourth axis, leading to ‘the revolution movement’. Similarly, the matter in molecular structure makes "revolution" around the geometric center of the magnetic mass line; by analogy, the original driving force of the earth's rotation and the revolution of other galaxies are generated by the electromagnetic induction theorem when the material properties of Yin and Yang poles in three-dimensional space are cutting the fourth dimensional magnetic line.

Another viewpoint proposed by this book is that this book can NOT agree with that the phenomenon that heavy mass objects curve spacetime (or time-space) can be observed in this time-space. The similar phenomenon observed by us can be explained by the diffraction of light.













原子是基本粒子最原始的物质形态;我们所在的三维空间中,原子中的基本粒子运动模型可以简化为电子围绕原子核做自转运动,原子核与电子为物质磁场属性的阴阳两极;与此同时,第四维度轴上的磁力线与三维空间垂直,阴阳两极基本粒子在第四维度轴的磁力线上做切割运动,从而产生了电荷。电磁感应定理的存在,是电子围绕原子核做自转运动的原始驱动力;对于多原子物质聚合形态的分子,在此前论述中,在第四维度轴上的暗物质作为能量粘合剂聚合了单原子物质,使得三维空间分子结构中的阴阳极性在第四维度轴上的磁力线的切割运动,进行着“公转”运动。相似的,分子结构中的物质围绕整体质量磁力线的几何中心做“公转”运动;余此类推,地球自转和其它星系公转运动的原始推动力,都是三维空间中的阴阳两极物质属性与第四维度磁力线做切割运动时电磁感应定理产生。




This is the revised materials of Chapter 11 in book “Proceedings for Degree of Postgraduate Diploma in Environmental Science (3rd Edition).” published in 2016. Revised on 30/12/2020.  

References:
All the science terms in English of this journal source from Wikipedia:
https://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/;
本文所有中文科学专业术语引用自百度百科 https://baike.baidu.com/
回复 支持 反对

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 楼主| 发表于 2020-12-31 11:09:34 | 显示全部楼层
Article 1: The materials, relativity and its philosophy attributes/物质、相对论、与哲学属性

Author: Liu Huan, MSc (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland.

1.The attributes of materials and fourth dimension time-space
There are three first attributes of materials: mass, energy and magnetism;the other attributes such as movement or electric charges are secondary attributes caused by the first attributes. For example, A = 1/a, When parameter ‘a’ turns to be zero, A is infinity, which is unmeasurable by us; in comparison, B = (1/a)/(2/a), when parameter ‘a’ turns to be zero, B = 0.5, which is measurable by us due to the relative value between denominator and numerator. This is the basis understanding of relativity. In this article, the time-space observed by us is at three dimensions and is just a point on the axis in the fourth dimension space. However, there are the other time-spaces (or points), which can not be observed by us but are NOT independent of our time-space observed by us, along this fourth dimension axis of the universe. According to the relativity proposed by Einstein, once materials reach the velocity of photon, time goes back. However, this article does not agree with this viewpoint! This three dimension time-space, which is being observed by us, is just traveling along the fourth axis, the time axis in the universe. Once the three attributes are defined, then the absolute vacuum in the universe is defined as the condition ‘no mass, no energy, no life signals,’ which is infinite in the universe.  

'Three Laws of Newton' only suits for this three dimension time-space observed by us. However, the movement of materials in this time-space also meets the movement law (the fourth law) which is relative against other time-spaces on the time axis of the universe which can not be observed by us, that's why this time-space observed by us is expanding and all the stars are moving away from earth! (If sufficient data is available, equations of the fourth law can be deduced). The fourth movement law across different time-spaces would be determined by this magnetic nature, which explains the movement rhythm above more reasonably. It is noted that the the galaxy as a whole must have both negative and positive poles as well!

2. Energy, Mass and light velocity
Light speed is defined as the transmission velocity of photon in vacuum condition in the dictionary, which obviously is an ideal conception. However, there is another materials in the universe, called as magnetism which reaches infinite transmission velocity in the fourth dimension time-space and is the only materials that is able to transfer across different time-space in the fourth axis. Quantum photons are defined as the first element particles in this time-space. Quantum photons conduct cutting movement along the fourth dimension magnetism, creating light waves and other frequencies of electromagnetic wave. The other element particles (such as protons or electrons) in atoms are synthesized by the first element particles - quantum photons.   

In the metabolic process of soft organism, bio-energy is converted between different frequencies, thus creating new energy, which does not obey the energy conservation law (the previous energy conservation Law is based on the conclusion of the conversion of abiotic energy). In this article, the mass is absorbed by black holes in our time-space, but is increasingly injected into our time-space by white holes, increasing the total mass in our time-space, so that the expansion of our time-space is keeping balance. This process is defined as ‘metabolism’ in our time-space.  



























This is the revised materials of Chapter 11 in book “Proceedings for Degree of Postgraduate Diploma in Environmental Science (3rd Edition).” published in 2016. Revised on 30/12/2020.  

References:
All the science terms in English of this journal source from Wikipedia:
https://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/;
本文所有中文科学专业术语引用自百度百科 https://baike.baidu.com/
Article 2. The anti-matter of symmetric three-dimensional spaces along the fourth dimension axis/第四维度轴上的对称三维空间与反物质原理

Author: Liu Huan, MSc (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland.

1.The principle of anti-matter.
The inter-atomic forces, except that the force of covalent bond is the Coulomb force between symmetric three-dimension spaces, the rest forces can be classified as the above mechanics. Covalent bond force is a Coulomb force between two symmetric three-dimensional spaces. In our three-dimension space, the protons electrons are positively charged and the electrons are negatively charged; the correspondingly symmetric three-dimensional space along the fourth dimension axis is called antimatter, in which the protons are negatively charged and the electrons are positively charged.When discussing the motion law and force analysis of the micro-particles inside the atom, we often simplify it as the self rotation motion of the negative charge electron around the positive charge nucleus. From the force analysis of at a central point of electrons, one is the centrifugal force, and the other is the centripetal force generated by positive and negative charges, so as to achieve force balance; However, when the force analysis is conducted on nucleus, positive charge nucleus is subjected to the pulling force produced by Coulomb force correspondingly to the centripetal force, how to achieve the equilibrium of force analysis? This question is particularly evident in hydrogen atoms of mono-atomic form, such as stellar matter. For the further discussion of atomic physics, why electrons and protons in atoms (such as radioactive elements) cannot merge and neutralize due to the mutual attraction of Coulomb force in atoms after half-life of atomic decay? Clearly, the negative and positive charged particles move away from each other and leaving out of the atoms at high speed. These questions can only be resolved by presenting the anti-matter principles between two symmetric space of three-dimensional along the fourth dimension in this article. Next let’s discuss further for more complex cases. For example, there are two covalently bonded atoms (atom1 and atom2). There are electron 1 and proton 1 in atom 1 ; and electron 2 and proton 2 in atom 2, respectively. The negatively charged electron 1 is pulled and paired by the positively charged electron in its correspondingly symmetric three-dimensional space; is also pulled and paired by positively charged proton 2 in atom 2 due to the covalent bond; the positively charged proton 2 is pulled and paired by the negatively charged electron 2 in atom 2; then the negatively charged electron 2 is pulled and paired by the positively charged electron in its correspondingly symmetric three-dimensional space. This series relationship also exists on electron 2 - proton 1 - electron 1. It's like a series of batteries, from positive to negative, positive to negative... Cyclic connection;

反物质原理。原子间作用力,除了共价键力是对称时空之间的库仑力性质,其余的都可以归为上述力学。共价键力是两个对称三维空间之间的库仑力作用。其中我们所在的三维空间质子带正电荷、电子带负电荷;则在第四维度轴上与它对应的对称三维空间中的质子带负电荷、电子带正电荷,即为反物质。在讨论原子内部粒子运动规律和受力分析时候,我们常常简化为负电荷电子围绕正电荷原子核做高速自旋转运动。从电子做单点受力分析,一方面是离心力的作用,另一方面是正负电荷产生的向心力作用,从而实现受力平衡;但是从原子核做单点受力分析,正电荷原子核受到库仑力产生的与向心力对应的拉力,如何做平衡受力分析?这个问题在单原子形态存在的氢原子(比如恒星天体物质)中尤其明显。更进一步讨论原子物理之后,原子(比如放射性元素)在半衰期后为何正负粒子之间不会由于库仑力的相互吸引力而在原子内部合并中和?而是带电粒子高速远离并射出原子外?这些命题都必须借助本文提出的对称三维物质空间中的反物质原理才能解决。再进一步讨论更为复杂的情景:比如两个共价键配对的原子。原子1中有电子1和质子1;原子2中有电子2和质子2。 其中负电荷电子1在第四维度轴上受其对应的对称三维时空中对应的正电荷电子牵引,并在自身三维时空中形成共价键的原子2中的其中一个正电荷质子2可以配对牵引,而这个正电荷质子2又可与自身原子中的另一个对应负电荷电子2牵引,最后这个负电荷电子2又在第四维度轴上受其对应的对称三维时空中正电荷电子牵引配对。这个串联关系同样作用于电子2-质子1-电子1. 这就像多个串联电池一样正负极、正负极。。。循环连接。














This is the revised materials of Chapter 11 in book “Proceedings for Degree of Postgraduate Diploma in Environmental Science (3rd Edition).” published in 2016. Revised on 30/12/2020.  

References:
All the science terms in English of this journal source from Wikipedia:
https://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/;
本文所有中文科学专业术语引用自百度百科 https://baike.baidu.com/


Article 3: The magnetism across time-spaces and the driving force of celestial rotation/磁场的时空穿越与天体旋转原动力

Author: Liu Huan, MSc (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland.


1. The magnetism along the fourth dimension axis
Atom is the most primitive material form of elementary particles; in our three-dimensional space, the motion model of elementary particles in atom can be simplified as the rotation of electrons around the nucleus, and the nuclei and electrons are the negative and positive poles of matter's magnetic properties; at the same time, the magnetic line on the fourth dimension axis is perpendicular to the three-dimensional space. These elementary particles cut along the magnetic line of on the fourth dimensional axis, thus generating electric charges. The existence of the electromagnetic induction theorem is the original driving force for electrons to rotate around the nucleus; for molecules with poly-atomic aggregation form, in the previous discussion, the dark matter on the fourth dimensional axis as an energy binder polymerizes mono-atomic matter, which makes the cutting motion on magnetic lines of the fourth axis, leading to ‘the revolution movement’. Similarly, the matter in molecular structure makes "revolution" around the geometric center of the magnetic mass line; by analogy, the original driving force of the earth's rotation and the revolution of other galaxies are generated by the electromagnetic induction theorem when the material properties of Yin and Yang poles in three-dimensional space are cutting the fourth dimensional magnetic line. Therefore, the more asymmetric for the spatial distribution of electric charges in celestial galaxies, the higher the overall polarity, so that the angular velocity of celestial rotation is faster; moreover, the higher the ratio of total mass to total charge (M / E) in celestial galaxies, the slower the angular velocity of celestial rotation. Therefore, within the aster of highest mass (such as black holes), even the most basic electromagnetic waves in the universe, light waves, can be hardly observed, indicating that there is almost no rotational force.


Another viewpoint proposed by this book is that this book can NOT agree with that the phenomenon that heavy mass objects curve spacetime (or time-space) can be observed in this time-space. The similar phenomenon observed by us can be explained by the diffraction of light.






原子是基本粒子最原始的物质形态;我们所在的三维空间中,原子中的基本粒子运动模型可以简化为电子围绕原子核做自转运动,原子核与电子为物质磁场属性的阴阳两极;与此同时,第四维度轴上的磁力线与三维空间垂直,阴阳两极基本粒子在第四维度轴的磁力线上做切割运动,从而产生了电荷。电磁感应定理的存在,是电子围绕原子核做自转运动的原始驱动力;对于多原子物质聚合形态的分子,在此前论述中,在第四维度轴上的暗物质作为能量粘合剂聚合了单原子物质,使得三维空间分子结构中的阴阳极性在第四维度轴上的磁力线的切割运动,进行着“公转”运动。相似的,分子结构中的物质围绕整体质量磁力线的几何中心做“公转”运动;余此类推,地球自转和其它星系公转运动的原始推动力,都是三维空间中的阴阳两极物质属性与第四维度磁力线做切割运动时电磁感应定理产生。因此,天体星系中电荷空间分布越不对称,整体极性越高,天体旋转角速度越快;不仅如此,天体星系中的总质量与总体电荷量的比值(M/E)越高,天体旋转角速度越慢。所以质量最大的天体(比如黑洞)中,连宇宙中最基本的电磁波,光波都无法显示,说明几乎无旋转动力。





















This is the revised materials of Chapter 11 in book “Proceedings for Degree of Postgraduate Diploma in Environmental Science (3rd Edition).” published in 2016. Revised on 30/12/2020.  

References:
All the science terms in English of this journal source from Wikipedia:
https://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/;
本文所有中文科学专业术语引用自百度百科 https://baike.baidu.com/
回复 支持 反对

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 楼主| 发表于 2021-1-1 17:28:26 | 显示全部楼层
Article 1: The materials, relativity and its philosophy attributes/物质、相对论、与哲学属性

Author: Liu Huan, MSc (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland.

1.The attributes of materials and fourth dimension time-space
There are three first attributes of materials: mass, energy and magnetism;the other attributes such as movement or electric charges are secondary attributes caused by the first attributes. For example, A = 1/a, When parameter ‘a’ turns to be zero, A is infinity, which is unmeasurable by us; in comparison, B = (1/a)/(2/a), when parameter ‘a’ turns to be zero, B = 0.5, which is measurable by us due to the relative value between denominator and numerator. This is the basis understanding of relativity. In this article, the time-space observed by us is at three dimensions and is just a point on the axis in the fourth dimension space. However, there are the other time-spaces (or points), which can not be observed by us but are NOT independent of our time-space observed by us, along this fourth dimension axis of the universe. According to the relativity proposed by Einstein, once materials reach the velocity of photon, time goes back. However, this article does not agree with this viewpoint! This three dimension time-space, which is being observed by us, is just traveling along the fourth axis, the time axis in the universe. Once the three attributes are defined, then the absolute vacuum in the universe is defined as the condition ‘no mass, no energy, no life signals,’ which is infinite in the universe.  

'Three Laws of Newton' only suits for this three dimension time-space observed by us. However, the movement of materials in this time-space also meets the movement law (the fourth law) which is relative against other time-spaces on the time axis of the universe which can not be observed by us, that's why this time-space observed by us is expanding and all the stars are moving away from earth! (If sufficient data is available, equations of the fourth law can be deduced). The fourth movement law across different time-spaces would be determined by this magnetic nature, which explains the movement rhythm above more reasonably. It is noted that the the galaxy as a whole must have both negative and positive poles as well!

2. Energy, Mass and light velocity
Light speed is defined as the transmission velocity of photon in vacuum condition in the dictionary, which obviously is an ideal conception. However, there is another materials in the universe, called as magnetism which reaches infinite transmission velocity in the fourth dimension time-space and is the only materials that is able to transfer across different time-space in the fourth axis. Quantum photons are defined as the first element particles in this time-space. Quantum photons conduct cutting movement along the fourth dimension magnetism, creating light waves and other frequencies of electromagnetic wave. The other element particles (such as protons or electrons) in atoms are synthesized by the first element particles - quantum photons.   

In the metabolic process of soft organism, bio-energy is converted between different frequencies, thus creating new energy, which does not obey the energy conservation law (the previous energy conservation Law is based on the conclusion of the conversion of abiotic energy). In this article, the mass is absorbed by black holes in our time-space, but is increasingly injected into our time-space by white holes, increasing the total mass in our time-space, so that the expansion of our time-space is keeping balance. This process is defined as ‘metabolism’ in our time-space.  



























This is the revised materials of Chapter 11 in book “Proceedings for Degree of Postgraduate Diploma in Environmental Science (3rd Edition).” published in 2016. Revised on 30/12/2020.  

References:
All the science terms in English of this journal source from Wikipedia:
https://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/;
本文所有中文科学专业术语引用自百度百科 https://baike.baidu.com/
Article 2. The anti-matter of symmetric three-dimensional spaces along the fourth dimension axis/第四维度轴上的对称三维空间与反物质原理

Author: Liu Huan, MSc (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland.

1.The principle of anti-matter.
The inter-atomic forces, except that the force of covalent bond is the Coulomb force between symmetric three-dimension spaces, the rest forces can be classified as the above mechanics. Covalent bond force is a Coulomb force between two symmetric three-dimensional spaces. In our three-dimension space, the protons electrons are positively charged and the electrons are negatively charged; the correspondingly symmetric three-dimensional space along the fourth dimension axis is called antimatter, in which the protons are negatively charged and the electrons are positively charged.When discussing the motion law and force analysis of the micro-particles inside the atom, we often simplify it as the self rotation motion of the negative charge electron around the positive charge nucleus. From the force analysis of at a central point of electrons, one is the centrifugal force, and the other is the centripetal force generated by positive and negative charges, so as to achieve force balance; However, when the force analysis is conducted on nucleus, positive charge nucleus is subjected to the pulling force produced by Coulomb force correspondingly to the centripetal force, how to achieve the equilibrium of force analysis? This question is particularly evident in hydrogen atoms of mono-atomic form, such as stellar matter. For the further discussion of atomic physics, why electrons and protons in atoms (such as radioactive elements) cannot merge and neutralize due to the mutual attraction of Coulomb force in atoms after half-life of atomic decay? Clearly, the negative and positive charged particles move away from each other and leaving out of the atoms at high speed. These questions can only be resolved by presenting the anti-matter principles between two symmetric space of three-dimensional along the fourth dimension in this article. Next let’s discuss further for more complex cases. For example, there are two covalently bonded atoms (atom1 and atom2). There are electron 1 and proton 1 in atom 1 ; and electron 2 and proton 2 in atom 2, respectively. The negatively charged electron 1 is pulled and paired by the positively charged electron in its correspondingly symmetric three-dimensional space; is also pulled and paired by positively charged proton 2 in atom 2 due to the covalent bond; the positively charged proton 2 is pulled and paired by the negatively charged electron 2 in atom 2; then the negatively charged electron 2 is pulled and paired by the positively charged electron in its correspondingly symmetric three-dimensional space. This series relationship also exists on electron 2 - proton 1 - electron 1. It's like a series of batteries, from positive to negative, positive to negative... Cyclic connection;

反物质原理。原子间作用力,除了共价键力是对称时空之间的库仑力性质,其余的都可以归为上述力学。共价键力是两个对称三维空间之间的库仑力作用。其中我们所在的三维空间质子带正电荷、电子带负电荷;则在第四维度轴上与它对应的对称三维空间中的质子带负电荷、电子带正电荷,即为反物质。在讨论原子内部粒子运动规律和受力分析时候,我们常常简化为负电荷电子围绕正电荷原子核做高速自旋转运动。从电子做单点受力分析,一方面是离心力的作用,另一方面是正负电荷产生的向心力作用,从而实现受力平衡;但是从原子核做单点受力分析,正电荷原子核受到库仑力产生的与向心力对应的拉力,如何做平衡受力分析?这个问题在单原子形态存在的氢原子(比如恒星天体物质)中尤其明显。更进一步讨论原子物理之后,原子(比如放射性元素)在半衰期后为何正负粒子之间不会由于库仑力的相互吸引力而在原子内部合并中和?而是带电粒子高速远离并射出原子外?这些命题都必须借助本文提出的对称三维物质空间中的反物质原理才能解决。再进一步讨论更为复杂的情景:比如两个共价键配对的原子。原子1中有电子1和质子1;原子2中有电子2和质子2。 其中负电荷电子1在第四维度轴上受其对应的对称三维时空中对应的正电荷电子牵引,并在自身三维时空中形成共价键的原子2中的其中一个正电荷质子2可以配对牵引,而这个正电荷质子2又可与自身原子中的另一个对应负电荷电子2牵引,最后这个负电荷电子2又在第四维度轴上受其对应的对称三维时空中正电荷电子牵引配对。这个串联关系同样作用于电子2-质子1-电子1. 这就像多个串联电池一样正负极、正负极。。。循环连接。














This is the revised materials of Chapter 11 in book “Proceedings for Degree of Postgraduate Diploma in Environmental Science (3rd Edition).” published in 2016. Revised on 30/12/2020.  

References:
All the science terms in English of this journal source from Wikipedia:
https://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/;
本文所有中文科学专业术语引用自百度百科 https://baike.baidu.com/


Article 3: The magnetism across time-spaces and the driving force of celestial rotation/磁场的时空穿越与天体旋转原动力

Author: Liu Huan, MSc (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland.


1. The magnetism along the fourth dimension axis
Atom is the most primitive material form of elementary particles; in our three-dimensional space, the motion model of elementary particles in atom can be simplified as the rotation of electrons around the nucleus, and the nuclei and electrons are the negative and positive poles of matter's magnetic properties; at the same time, the magnetic line on the fourth dimension axis is perpendicular to the three-dimensional space. These elementary particles cut along the magnetic line of on the fourth dimensional axis, thus generating electric charges. The existence of the electromagnetic induction theorem is the original driving force for electrons to rotate around the nucleus; for molecules with poly-atomic aggregation form, in the previous discussion, the dark matter on the fourth dimensional axis as an energy binder polymerizes mono-atomic matter, which makes the cutting motion on magnetic lines of the fourth axis, leading to ‘the revolution movement’. Similarly, the matter in molecular structure makes "revolution" around the geometric center of the magnetic mass line; by analogy, the original driving force of the earth's rotation and the revolution of other galaxies are generated by the electromagnetic induction theorem when the material properties of Yin and Yang poles in three-dimensional space are cutting the fourth dimensional magnetic line. Therefore, the more asymmetric for the spatial distribution of electric charges in celestial galaxies, the higher the overall polarity, so that the angular velocity of celestial rotation is faster; moreover, the higher the ratio of total mass to total charge (M / E) in celestial galaxies, the slower the angular velocity of celestial rotation. Therefore, within the aster of highest mass (such as black holes), even the most basic electromagnetic waves in the universe, light waves, can be hardly observed, indicating that there is almost no rotational force.


Another viewpoint proposed by this book is that this book can NOT agree with that the phenomenon that heavy mass objects curve spacetime (or time-space) can be observed in this time-space. The similar phenomenon observed by us can be explained by the diffraction of light.






原子是基本粒子最原始的物质形态;我们所在的三维空间中,原子中的基本粒子运动模型可以简化为电子围绕原子核做自转运动,原子核与电子为物质磁场属性的阴阳两极;与此同时,第四维度轴上的磁力线与三维空间垂直,阴阳两极基本粒子在第四维度轴的磁力线上做切割运动,从而产生了电荷。电磁感应定理的存在,是电子围绕原子核做自转运动的原始驱动力;对于多原子物质聚合形态的分子,在此前论述中,在第四维度轴上的暗物质作为能量粘合剂聚合了单原子物质,使得三维空间分子结构中的阴阳极性在第四维度轴上的磁力线的切割运动,进行着“公转”运动。相似的,分子结构中的物质围绕整体质量磁力线的几何中心做“公转”运动;余此类推,地球自转和其它星系公转运动的原始推动力,都是三维空间中的阴阳两极物质属性与第四维度磁力线做切割运动时电磁感应定理产生。因此,天体星系中电荷空间分布越不对称,整体极性越高,天体旋转角速度越快;不仅如此,天体星系中的总质量与总体电荷量的比值(M/E)越高,天体旋转角速度越慢。所以质量最大的天体(比如黑洞)中,连宇宙中最基本的电磁波,光波都无法显示,说明几乎无旋转动力。





















This is the revised materials of Chapter 11 in book “Proceedings for Degree of Postgraduate Diploma in Environmental Science (3rd Edition).” published in 2016. Revised on 30/12/2020.  

References:
All the science terms in English of this journal source from Wikipedia:
https://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/;
本文所有中文科学专业术语引用自百度百科 https://baike.baidu.com/

Article 4: The formation mechanism of substance boundary layers /物质在各形态中的分层与边界形成机制:

Author: Liu Huan, MSc (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland.

In the three-dimension materials space, the boundaries commonly exists among the materials of solid state, liquid state or gas state. For example, atmosphere is divided into troposphere and stratosphere by the clear boundary layer between both; the water temperature is divided into different thermal layers along the depth of a lake by the clear boundary between water layers; apparent lithologic stratification is segregated by the geological boundary between them.

The formation of substance boundary: the polarity of polar molecules and atoms (or the induced van der Waals force of non-polar molecules and atoms) leads to the symmetrical arrangement between positive and negative poles. As the whole substances, it tends to be a neutral substance boundary. This neutral substance boundary becomes the obstacle stopping  the polar substances from the transmission through it, resulting in different substance layers.     


Previously published on 04/05/2020. Revised on 01/01/2021.














References:
All the science terms in English of this journal source from Wikipedia:
https://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/;
本文所有中文科学专业术语引用自百度百科 https://baike.baidu.com/
Article 5. Why does Ocean between NZ and Australia a Climate Change "Hot spot" in Climate Change?/为什么新西兰与澳大利亚之间的海洋成为了气候变化的热点问题?

Author: Liu Huan, MSc (First Class Honous), The University of Auckland

Firstly, the ozone depletion leads to higher radiation of UV-B in this region; Secondly, the ocean current in this region is the vortex form so that heat can be hardly transferred into other ocean area; thirdly, there would be more oceanic volcano in this regions than other regions.

References:
A public class from Jamie Morton, School of Environment. 2016. The University of Auckland.

Published after graduation on 05/09/2016; Revised on 01/01/2021.




















References:
All the science terms in English of this journal source from Wikipedia:
https://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/;
本文所有中文科学专业术语引用自百度百科 https://baike.baidu.com/
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