hliu092 发表于 2021-1-4 10:27:20

Assessing Heterogeneity in A Ecosystem/生态系统异质性评价方法研究

This is the article 4 in the theme 'Environmental Physiology/环境生理学' of Journal of Environment and Health Science.

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DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.14959.51363

hliu092 发表于 2022-1-8 09:58:10

Article 4: A Methodology of Assessing Spatial and Functional Heterogeneity in A Ecosystem / 生态系统的空间和功能异质性评价方法研究
Author: Liu Huan, Master of Science (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland

As pointed out by Chinese Biodiversity Conservation Strategy and Action Planning (2010-2030), degradation of ecosystem function is one of three problems threatening biodiversity conservation in China. Under this background, this article presents a matrix to assess the spatial and functional heterogeneity in a ecosystem, which also provides the route of conservation strategy for ecosystem restoration.

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1. Introduction and Significance Liu et al., (2010) applied β Sorenson index on the investigation of the variability of plant communities of grass land in Ordos, Inner Mongolia of China, which was restored from grazing land . However, the β Sorenson index does not well represent the spatial heterogeneity in ecosystem, which has been revised by this research and the species significance has been integrated into the β Sorenson index. To date fewer research have assessed the functional heterogeneity in ecosystem, which has been included in this research. A novel matrix and functional heterogeneity index are presented, reflecting the interaction between ecological function of each botanical species and spatial distribution. In a national forest park representing the background valueof a ecosystem, the application of both spatial and functional heterogeneity index helps to select the reference communities for restoration of ecosystem function degradation in local area. Additionally, a new methodology of assessment of water conservation function in a ecosystem is also presented in appendix 1 as case study for ecological function assessment.
2. Assessment of Spatial Heterogeneity The method to assess spatial heterogeneity of botanical community: Significance of species (S) = Density + Frequency + Dominance . The spatial heterogeneity index between community B and C= 2×ΣSi1/(ΣSi2+ΣSi3), i1 = 1,2,… a; i2 = 1,2,… b; i3 = 1,2,… c. In this equation, S i1 is the significance of a species existing concurrently in both community B and C; a is the total amount of common species between community B and C; Si2 is the significance of a species in community B; b is the total amount of species in community B; Si2 is the significance of a species in community C; c is the total amount of species in community C.

3. Assessment of Functional Heterogeneity





4. Discussion of Methodology In this article, the calculation scope of species significance is the whole ecosystem in local area which can be classified into several communities by multivariate cluster analysis. Then, the spatial and functional heterogeneity index can be calculated between any two communities. However, if the two communities are independent community pre-defined for restoration purpose (e.g. a background community and a restored community), then the calculation scope of species significance is within the pre-defined two communities only. In this case, there is an exception that the spatial heterogeneity index would always remain constant when the two communities own the same species, regardless of proportion and spatial distribution of species. Apparently, the spatial heterogeneity index does not work in this case, so it is just a rough indicator to measurespatial heterogeneity. Additionally, in Matrix F2, ΣΣValuej×Sj is a simple community indicator of restoration for ecosystem function degradation, although this indicator lacks of reflecting the effect of interactions among species on ecosystem function. However, the application of functional heterogeneity index on restoration process should strengthen the whole ecosystem function (e.g. to select several communities with satisfactory spatial and functional heterogeneity index in a national forest park as the background samples for ecosystem restoration). In the appendix of this article, a novel method of ecological function assessment is designed as a case study.
Appendix 1. Assessment of water conservation function in a ecosystem/生态系统的水源涵养功能的评价方法 The quantitative assessment of ecosystem function for conservation of water will follow these steps: in a national forest park which is the source of a river, the drainage area is calculated by 3S technology; the depth of runoff (= the runoff volume over a period ÷ drainage area) is calculated; estimation of total water evaporation over the drainage area; record of total rainfall volume over the drainage area; the ecological function for conservation of water is assessed by the ratio: (total rainfall volume – total water evaporation) ÷ the depth of runoff. In addition, to assess the effect of topography on conservation of water in ecosystem, the drainage area should be calculated as the area of curved surface by GIS for the depth of runoff, and as the projection area for the total water evaporation and rainfall volume. The methods of GIS application on this calculation is advised . However, the application of static differential GPS on digital elevation correction is also advised before this .

This is the revised materials in book “Proceedings for Degree of Postgraduate Diploma in Environmental Science (3rd Edition).” Published in 2016. The ‘chapter’ content mentioned in this article is in previous book. Revised on 05/01/2021; Thirdly Revised on 08/01/2022.
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