hliu092 发表于 2021-1-2 15:38:23

The Fourth Dimension Spaces and Anti-Matter/第四维度空间与反物质

This is the article 2 in the theme 'Astronomy and Earth Science/天体与地球科学' of Journal of Environment and Health Science (ISSN 2413-1628).

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DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.33991.16806

hliu092 发表于 2022-8-8 17:17:23

Article 2. The anti-matter of symmetric three-dimensional spaces along the fourth dimension axis/第四维度轴上的对称三维空间与反物质原理 Author: Liu Huan (1983-), Master of Science (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland. 1.The principle of anti-matter. The force balance of each mass point within an atom can only be achieved by the traction of the antimatter Coulomb force between two symmetric three-dimensional spaces. The force of covalent bond is the Coulomb force between two symmetric three-dimension spaces as well. In our three-dimension space, the protons electrons are positively charged and the electrons are negatively charged; the materials in correspondingly symmetric three-dimensional space along the fourth dimension axis is called antimatter, in which the protons are negatively charged and the electrons are positively charged.When discussing the motion law and force analysis of the micro-particles inside the atom, we often simplify it as the self rotation motion of the negative charge electron around the positive charge nucleus. From the force analysis at a central point of electron, one is the centrifugal force, and the other is the centripetal force generated by positive and negative charges, so as to achieve force balance; However, when the force analysis is conducted on nucleus, positive charge nucleus is subjected to the pulling force produced by Coulomb force correspondingly to the centripetal force, how to achieve the equilibrium of force analysis? This question is particularly evident in hydrogen atoms of mono-atomic form, such as stellar matter. For the further discussion of atomic physics, why electrons and protons in atoms (such as radioactive elements) cannot merge and neutralize due to the mutual attraction of Coulomb force in atoms after half-life of atomic decay? Clearly, the negative and positive charged particles move away from each other and leaving out of the atoms at high speed. These questions can only be resolved by presenting the anti-matter principles between two symmetric space of three-dimensional along the fourth dimension in this article, which is that only when the positively charged protons in our three-dimensional space are paired and pulled by the negatively charged protons in its symmetrical three-dimensional space along the fourth dimensional axis, the force balance of the atomic nucleus can be maintained.
Next let’s discuss further for more complex cases. For example, there are two covalently bonded atoms (atom1 and atom2). There are electron 1 and proton 1 in atom 1 ; and electron 2 and proton 2 in atom 2, respectively. The negatively charged electron 1 is pulled and paired by the positively charged electron in its correspondingly symmetric three-dimensional space; is also pulled and paired by positively charged proton 2 in atom 2 due to the covalent bond; the positively charged proton 2 is pulled and paired by the negatively charged electron 2 in atom 2; then the negatively charged electron 2 is pulled and paired by the positively charged electron in its correspondingly symmetric three-dimensional space. This series relationship also exists on electron 2 - proton 1 - electron 1. It's like a series of batteries, from positive to negative, positive to negative... Cyclic connection. This also makes the electron cloud between atoms display as a double - ring crossing mode, so as to form a stable molecular structure. However, the covalent bond force is inter-atomic force, which is different from the force balance analysis ofintra-atomic force discussed above. 反物质原理。原子内各质点的受力平衡必须依靠两个对称三维空间之间的反物质库仑力牵引才能实现。共价键力是两个对称三维空间之间的库仑力作用。其中我们所在的三维空间质子带正电荷、电子带负电荷;则在第四维度轴上与它对应的对称三维空间中的质子带负电荷、电子带正电荷,即为反物质。在讨论原子内部粒子运动规律和受力分析时候,我们常常简化为负电荷电子围绕正电荷原子核做高速自旋转运动。从电子做单点受力分析,一方面是离心力的作用,另一方面是正负电荷产生的向心力作用,从而实现受力平衡;但是从原子核做单点受力分析,正电荷原子核受到库仑力产生的与向心力对应的拉力,如何做平衡受力分析?这个问题在单原子形态存在的氢原子(比如恒星天体物质)中尤其明显。更进一步讨论原子物理之后,原子(比如放射性元素)在半衰期后为何正负粒子之间不会由于库仑力的相互吸引力而在原子内部合并中和?而是带电粒子高速远离并射出原子外?这些命题都必须借助本文提出的对称三维物质空间中的反物质原理才能解决,即:我们所在三维空间中的正电荷质子与对称三维空间中的负电荷质子相配对、牵引,才能维系原子核的受力平衡。 再进一步讨论更为复杂的情景:比如两个共价键配对的原子。原子1中有电子1和质子1;原子2中有电子2和质子2。其中负电荷电子1在第四维度轴上受其对应的对称三维时空中对应的正电荷电子牵引,并在自身三维时空中形成共价键的原子2中的其中一个正电荷质子2可以配对牵引,而这个正电荷质子2又可与自身原子中的另一个对应负电荷电子2牵引,最后这个负电荷电子2又在第四维度轴上受其对应的对称三维时空中正电荷电子牵引配对。这个串联关系同样作用于电子2-质子1-电子1. 这就像多个串联电池一样正负极、正负极。。。循环连接。这也使得原子间电子云呈现双环交叉模式,才能形成稳定分子结构。然而,共价键力为原子间作用力,与以上讨论的原子内作用力的受力平衡分析不同。
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This is the revised materials in book “Proceedings for Degree of Postgraduate Diploma in Environmental Science (3rd Edition).” published in 2016. Secondly Revised on 30/12/2020; Thirdly Revised on 25/01/2022; Fourthly Revised on 08/08/2022. Fifthly Revised on 21/08/2022. References: 搜狗百科,共享百科全书/Sogou Baike, Creative Commons.

hliu092 发表于 2021-1-2 15:39:26

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hliu092 发表于 2022-1-25 10:49:41

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